How to format your references using the Flexible Services and Manufacturing Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Flexible Services and Manufacturing Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Peplow M (2013) Structure: the anatomy of sleep. Nature 497:S2-3
A journal article with 2 authors
Povolotskaya IS, Kondrashov FA (2010) Sequence space and the ongoing expansion of the protein universe. Nature 465:922–926
A journal article with 3 authors
LaRiviere FJ, Wolfson AD, Uhlenbeck OC (2001) Uniform binding of aminoacyl-tRNAs to elongation factor Tu by thermodynamic compensation. Science 294:165–168
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Ma Y, Szostkiewicz I, Korte A, et al (2009) Regulators of PP2C phosphatase activity function as abscisic acid sensors. Science 324:1064–1068

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kaut Roth C, Faulkner WH Jr (2013) Review Questions for MRI. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd,., West Sussex, UK
An edited book
Li Z (2015) Intelligent Networked Teleoperation Control. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Perlin HA, Lopes HS (2013) A Genetic Programming Approach for Image Segmentation. In: Chatterjee A, Siarry P (eds) Computational Intelligence in Image Processing. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 71–90

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Flexible Services and Manufacturing Journal.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J (2017) Discovery Of Oldest Plants Could Rewrite When Complex Life Began On Earth. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2001) Highway Projects: Extent of Unobligated Balances for Demonstration Projects. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hernandez SS (2013) Professionals’ perceptions of effective interventions with elderly hoarders. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Oestreich JR (2017) Move Over, Bach. Handel’s Moving In. New York Times C5

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Peplow 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Povolotskaya and Kondrashov 2010; Peplow 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Povolotskaya and Kondrashov 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Ma et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleFlexible Services and Manufacturing Journal
AbbreviationFlex. Serv. Manuf. J.
ISSN (print)1936-6582
ISSN (online)1936-6590
ScopeManagement Science and Operations Research
Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering

Other styles