How to format your references using the Flexible Services and Manufacturing Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Flexible Services and Manufacturing Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Crim FF (2007) Chemistry. Making energy count. Science 316:1707–1708
A journal article with 2 authors
Vaquero-Sedas MI, Vega-Palas MA (2014) Determination of Arabidopsis thaliana telomere length by PCR. Sci Rep 4:5540
A journal article with 3 authors
Ehrlich PR, Kareiva PM, Daily GC (2012) Securing natural capital and expanding equity to rescale civilization. Nature 486:68–73
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Zhang L, Ding X, Cui J, et al (2011) Cysteine methylation disrupts ubiquitin-chain sensing in NF-κB activation. Nature 481:204–208

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Paul S (2010) Digital Video Distribution in Broadband, Television, Mobile and Converged Networks. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Bacciotti F, Testi L, Whelan E (eds) (2008) Jets from Young Stars II: Clues from High Angular Resolution Observations. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
van de Heetkamp A, Tusveld R (2011) The Content of the FTA Text and Its Range. In: Tusveld R (ed) Origin Management: Rules of Origin in Free Trade Agreements. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 49–69

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Flexible Services and Manufacturing Journal.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014) Surprising Heat Tolerance In Some Corals May Provide Hope For The Future Of Reefs. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1986) [Response to Request for Views on Application of P.L. 99-177 to Teacher Loan Cancellations]. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Richard K (2017) College Programs in Women’s Prisons: Faculty Perceptions of Teaching Higher Education Behind Bars. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky S (2002) Moscow Journal; Feast or Fast? Russians Just Can’t Give Up Lent. New York Times A4

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Crim 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Crim 2007; Vaquero-Sedas and Vega-Palas 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Vaquero-Sedas and Vega-Palas 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Zhang et al. 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titleFlexible Services and Manufacturing Journal
AbbreviationFlex. Serv. Manuf. J.
ISSN (print)1936-6582
ISSN (online)1936-6590
ScopeManagement Science and Operations Research
Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering

Other styles