How to format your references using the Flexible Services and Manufacturing Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Flexible Services and Manufacturing Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Brydson R (2014) Materials analysis: Good vibrations. Nature 514:177–178
A journal article with 2 authors
Arthur R, Diamond J (2011) Geography. Understanding tribal fates. Science 334:911–912
A journal article with 3 authors
Wiedenheft B, Sternberg SH, Doudna JA (2012) RNA-guided genetic silencing systems in bacteria and archaea. Nature 482:331–338
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Stewart CJ, Ajami NJ, O’Brien JL, et al (2018) Temporal development of the gut microbiome in early childhood from the TEDDY study. Nature 562:583–588

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ghosh A, Berg S (2014) Arrow Pushing in Inorganic Chemistry. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Das A (ed) (2007) Tensors: The Mathematics of Relativity Theory and Continuum Mechanics. Springer, New York, NY
A chapter in an edited book
Folkers G, Kut E, Boyer M (2010) Drug Design: Designer Drugs. In: Konsorski-Lang S, Hampe M (eds) The Design of Material, Organism, and Minds: Different Understandings of Design. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 53–63

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Flexible Services and Manufacturing Journal.

Blog post
Andrew D (2016) Stories Of Vaccine-Related Harms Are Influential, Even When People Don’t Believe Them. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2015) Airport Funding: Changes in Aviation Activity Are Reflected in Reduced Capacity Concerns. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hertzog L (2013) Development and implementation of a prenatal postpartum depression education program for nurse practitioner students at California State University Long Beach. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gordon MR (2017) A Freed but Scarred City Tests Trump. New York Times A1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Brydson 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Arthur and Diamond 2011; Brydson 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Arthur and Diamond 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Stewart et al. 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleFlexible Services and Manufacturing Journal
AbbreviationFlex. Serv. Manuf. J.
ISSN (print)1936-6582
ISSN (online)1936-6590
ScopeManagement Science and Operations Research
Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering

Other styles