How to format your references using the Flexible Services and Manufacturing Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Flexible Services and Manufacturing Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schilling G (2000) HIGH-ENERGY ASTROPHYSICS: X-ray Satellites Seek Clues to Bursts. Science 290:927
A journal article with 2 authors
Taylor AF, Smith GR (2003) RecBCD enzyme is a DNA helicase with fast and slow motors of opposite polarity. Nature 423:889–893
A journal article with 3 authors
Schaller J, Weiske A, Berger F (2013) Thunderbolt in biogeochemistry: galvanic effects of lightning as another source for metal remobilization. Sci Rep 3:3122
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Mata-Haro V, Cekic C, Martin M, et al (2007) The vaccine adjuvant monophosphoryl lipid A as a TRIF-biased agonist of TLR4. Science 316:1628–1632

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ursone P (2015) How to Calculate Options Prices and Their Greeks. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Khine MS (ed) (2015) Science Education in East Asia: Pedagogical Innovations and Research-informed Practices, 1st ed. 2015. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Ceyhan Ö (2010) Towards Quantum Cohomology of Real Varieties. In: Ceyhan Ö, Manin YI, Marcolli M (eds) Arithmetic and Geometry Around Quantization. Birkhäuser, Boston, MA, pp 65–99

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Flexible Services and Manufacturing Journal.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) A 3.5-Billion Year Old Pilbara Find Is Not The Oldest Fossil: So What Is It? In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2006) Social Security Numbers: More Could be Done to Protect SSNs. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hill B (2010) HIV-specific CD8 T-cell clonality, publicity and function under different vaccine modalities. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner J (2017) Alone Among Starters: Healthy and Dominant. New York Times B11

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Schilling 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Schilling 2000; Taylor and Smith 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Taylor and Smith 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Mata-Haro et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleFlexible Services and Manufacturing Journal
AbbreviationFlex. Serv. Manuf. J.
ISSN (print)1936-6582
ISSN (online)1936-6590
ScopeManagement Science and Operations Research
Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering

Other styles