How to format your references using the Flexible Services and Manufacturing Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Flexible Services and Manufacturing Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gershon D (2004) Cell signalling: making connections. Nature 432:243–249
A journal article with 2 authors
Boss PK, Thomas MR (2002) Association of dwarfism and floral induction with a grape “green revolution” mutation. Nature 416:847–850
A journal article with 3 authors
Clutton-Brock TH, Coulson T, Milner JM (2004) Red deer stocks in the Highlands of Scotland. Nature 429:261–262
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Shapiro MD, Marks ME, Peichel CL, et al (2004) Genetic and developmental basis of evolutionary pelvic reduction in threespine sticklebacks. Nature 428:717–723

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Riehle F (2003) Frequency Standards. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, FRG
An edited book
Stanley W (2009) Software Verification and Analysis: An Integrated, Hands-On Approach. Springer, London
A chapter in an edited book
Dargahi F, Rahmani AM, Jabbehdari S (2009) Data Gathering Based on Nodes’ Credit in Wireless Sensor Network. In: Kim T-H, Yang LT, Park JH, et al. (eds) Advances in Communication and Networking: Second International Conference on Future Generation Communication and Networking, FGCN 2008, Sanya, Hainan Island, China, December 13-15, 2008. Revised Selected Papers. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 55–62

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Flexible Services and Manufacturing Journal.

Blog post
Andrews R (2016) Check Out These Volcanologists Brewing Vast Batches Of Homemade Lava. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2000) Critical Infrastructure Protection: “ILOVEYOU” Computer Virus Highlights Need for Improved Alert and Coordination Capabilities. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bustillo MF (2010) Heart and Art: Post-adoption program: A grant proposal. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Herrman J (2016) Stage Craft. New York Times MM15

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gershon 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Boss and Thomas 2002; Gershon 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Boss and Thomas 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Shapiro et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleFlexible Services and Manufacturing Journal
AbbreviationFlex. Serv. Manuf. J.
ISSN (print)1936-6582
ISSN (online)1936-6590
ScopeManagement Science and Operations Research
Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering

Other styles