How to format your references using the Biomedical Materials citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biomedical Materials. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fry D P 2012 Life without war Science 336 879–84
A journal article with 2 authors
Ward D J and MacKay D J C 2002 Artificial intelligence: fast hands-free writing by gaze direction Nature 418 838
A journal article with 3 authors
Mooney H, Cropper A and Reid W 2005 Confronting the human dilemma Nature 434 561–2
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Lim J, Kim J, Kang J and Jo D 2014 Partial somatic to stem cell transformations induced by cell-permeable reprogramming factors Sci. Rep. 4 4361

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dunlop J, Girma D and Irvine J 2013 Digital Mobile Communications and the Tetra System (West Sussex, England: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.)
An edited book
Itoi E, Arce G, Bain G I, Diercks R L, Guttmann D, Imhoff A B, Mazzocca A D, Sugaya H and Yoo Y-S 2015 Shoulder Stiffness: Current Concepts and Concerns (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer)
A chapter in an edited book
Okaie Y, Nakano T, Hara T and Nishio S 2016 Controllability of Mobile Bionanosensors Target Detection and Tracking by Bionanosensor Networks SpringerBriefs in Computer Science ed T Nakano, T Hara and S Nishio (Singapore: Springer) pp 53–8

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biomedical Materials.

Blog post
Luntz S 2015 Best View Yet Of A Stellar Ghost IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 2002 Marine Transportation: Federal Financing and a Framework for Infrastructure Investments (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Borgman G A 2017 Loneliness and the Hermitic Psyche Doctoral dissertation (Carpinteria, CA: Pacifica Graduate Institute)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Kishkovsky S 2008 Investors in Russian Gas Venture Clash New York Times C8

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBiomedical Materials
AbbreviationBiomed. Mater.
ISSN (print)1748-6041
ISSN (online)1748-605X
Biomedical Engineering

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