How to format your references using the Biomedical Materials citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biomedical Materials. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gershon D 2004 In the market-place Nature 432 243–5
A journal article with 2 authors
Zhu H and Owen M R 2013 Damped propagation of cell polarization explains distinct PCP phenotypes of epithelial patterning Sci. Rep. 3 2528
A journal article with 3 authors
Fiske S T, Harris L T and Cuddy A J C 2004 Social psychology. Why ordinary people torture enemy prisoners Science 306 1482–3
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Moberg A, Sonechkin D M, Holmgren K, Datsenko N M, Karlén W and Lauritzen S-E 2005 Highly variable Northern Hemisphere temperatures reconstructed from low- and high-resolution proxy data Nature 433 613–7

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cheng V S and Tong J C 2017 Building Sustainability in East Asia (Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd)
An edited book
Snoeyink J, Lu P, Su K and Wang L 2012 Frontiers in Algorithmics and Algorithmic Aspects in Information and Management: Joint International Conference, FAW-AAIM 2012, Beijing, China, May 14-16, 2012. Proceedings vol 7285 (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer)
A chapter in an edited book
Kusuoka S 2007 A remark on law invariant convex risk measures Advances in Mathematical Economics Advances in Mathematical Economics ed S Kusuoka and A Yamazaki (Tokyo: Springer Japan) pp 91–100

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biomedical Materials.

Blog post
Andrew E 2014 Invertebrates inject a bit of romance during sex – by stabbing each other IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1986 Federal Funding Mechanisms in Support of University Research (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Love K S 2010 Factors infleuncing job satisfaction in nurses Doctoral dissertation (Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin J 2017 CBS Wrongly Reports Singer’s Death New York Times B3

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBiomedical Materials
AbbreviationBiomed. Mater.
ISSN (print)1748-6041
ISSN (online)1748-605X
Biomedical Engineering

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