How to format your references using the Biomedical Materials citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biomedical Materials. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rust J 2000 Fossil record of mass moth migration Nature 405 530–1
A journal article with 2 authors
Grant M R and Jones J D G 2009 Hormone (dis)harmony moulds plant health and disease Science 324 750–2
A journal article with 3 authors
Shen Y, Knoll A H and Walter M R 2003 Evidence for low sulphate and anoxia in a mid-Proterozoic marine basin Nature 423 632–5
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Aomatsu E, Takahashi N, Sawada S, Okubo N, Hasegawa T, Taira M, Miura H, Ishisaki A and Chosa N 2014 Novel SCRG1/BST1 axis regulates self-renewal, migration, and osteogenic differentiation potential in mesenchymal stem cells Sci. Rep. 4 3652

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Courant R and McShane E J 1988 Differential and Integral Calculus (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.)
An edited book
Shaikh F K, Chowdhry B S, Zeadally S, Hussain D M A, Memon A A and Uqaili M A 2014 Communication Technologies, Information Security and Sustainable Development: Third International Multi-topic Conference, IMTIC 2013, Jamshoro, Pakistan, December 18--20, 2013, Revised Selected Papers vol 414 (Cham: Springer International Publishing)
A chapter in an edited book
Ouzzani M and Bouguettaya A 2011 Implementation and Experiments Semantic Web Services for Web Databases ed A Bouguettaya (New York, NY: Springer) pp 77–95

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biomedical Materials.

Blog post
Luntz S 2014 Humans Took Away Dogs’ Mathematical Abilities IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 2004 Information Technology: Foundational Steps Being Taken to Make Needed FBI Systems Modernization Management Improvements (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Camaya C 2015 Teachers’ perceptions of social skills instruction for children with autism spectrum disorders Doctoral dissertation (Phoenix, AZ: University of Phoenix)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh M W 2017 Policyholders in Limbo After Rare Failure of Insurer New York Times BU5

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBiomedical Materials
AbbreviationBiomed. Mater.
ISSN (print)1748-6041
ISSN (online)1748-605X
Biomedical Engineering

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