How to format your references using the Biomedical Materials citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biomedical Materials. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Butler D 2003 Quake triggers research expedition Nature 423 673
A journal article with 2 authors
Boal A K and Rosenzweig A C 2012 Biochemistry. A radical route for nitrogenase carbide insertion Science 337 1617–8
A journal article with 3 authors
Chung K, Lee C-H and Yi G-C 2010 Transferable GaN layers grown on ZnO-coated graphene layers for optoelectronic devices Science 330 655–7
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Abaci H E, Shen Y-I, Tan S and Gerecht S 2014 Recapitulating physiological and pathological shear stress and oxygen to model vasculature in health and disease Sci. Rep. 4 4951

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pease G 2015 Optimize Your Greatest Asset-Your People (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc)
An edited book
Stanley W 2009 Software Verification and Analysis: An Integrated, Hands-On Approach ed J Laski (London: Springer)
A chapter in an edited book
Yu M-H and Li J-C 2012 Non-Smooth Multi-Surface Plasticity Computational Plasticity: With Emphasis on the Application of the Unified Strength Theory Advanced Topics in Science and Technology in China ed J-C Li (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer) pp 129–61

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biomedical Materials.

Blog post
Andrews R 2017 Australian Trees And Termite Mounds Hint At Hidden Gold Caches IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 2002 NASA Management Challenges: Human Capital and Other Critical Areas Need to be Addressed (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rogers R 2017 What Qualities Make an Effective Teacher Labor Union Leader? Doctoral dissertation (Malibu, CA: Pepperdine University)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky S 1991 Spending Your Dollars in Europe: Soviet Union; Prices Are Wildly Irrational, but There Is Room to Maneuver New York Times 526

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBiomedical Materials
AbbreviationBiomed. Mater.
ISSN (print)1748-6041
ISSN (online)1748-605X
Biomedical Engineering

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