How to format your references using the Biomedical Materials citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biomedical Materials. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Salo H 2011 Astronomy. Twisted disks Science 332 672–3
A journal article with 2 authors
Lyerly A D and Faden R R 2007 Embryonic stem cells. Willingness to donate frozen embryos for stem cell research Science 317 46–7
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhang L, Zeng X and Wang X 2013 Programmable hydrogenation of graphene for novel nanocages Sci. Rep. 3 3162
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Ghosh S, Rosenbaum T F, Aeppli G and Coppersmith S N 2003 Entangled quantum state of magnetic dipoles Nature 425 48–51

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lewin M D 2007 Better Software Project Management: A Primer for Success (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.)
An edited book
Xie H 2012 Atomic Force Microscopy Based Nanorobotics: Modelling, Simulation, Setup Building and Experiments vol 71, ed C Onal, S Régnier and M Sitti (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer)
A chapter in an edited book
Fyfe C 2005 Artificial Neural Networks Do Smart Adaptive Systems Exist?: Best Practice for Selection and Combination of Intelligent Methods Studies in Fuzziness and Soft Computing ed B Gabrys, K Leiviskä and J Strackeljan (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer) pp 57–79

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biomedical Materials.

Blog post
Andrew E 2015 New Dog Robot Can Run and Climb Just Like The Real Thing IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 2011 Aviation Security: Progress Made, but Challenges Persist in Meeting the Screening Mandate for Air Cargo (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Englebrecht K M 2012 Healing the invisible wounds: A grant proposal for female veterans suffering from PTSD Doctoral dissertation (Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cheever S 2014 ‘Why Didn’t Rebecca Stop at the Railroad Crossing?’ New York Times MM46

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBiomedical Materials
AbbreviationBiomed. Mater.
ISSN (print)1748-6041
ISSN (online)1748-605X
Biomedical Engineering

Other styles