How to format your references using the Biomedical Materials citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biomedical Materials. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pain E 2008 Science careers. An adventurous physicist Science 320 1517
A journal article with 2 authors
Cassenaer S and Laurent G 2012 Conditional modulation of spike-timing-dependent plasticity for olfactory learning Nature 482 47–52
A journal article with 3 authors
Son M Y, Lee J-K and Kang Y C 2014 Fabrication and electrochemical performance of 0.6Li2MnO3-0.4Li(Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3)O2 microspheres by two-step spray-drying process Sci. Rep. 4 5752
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Krumholz A, Shcherbakova D M, Xia J, Wang L V and Verkhusha V V 2014 Multicontrast photoacoustic in vivo imaging using near-infrared fluorescent proteins Sci. Rep. 4 3939

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Aubry J-F, Brinzei N and Mazouni M-H 2016 Systems Dependability Assessment (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.)
An edited book
Wakabayashi I and Groschner K 2014 Interdisciplinary Concepts in Cardiovascular Health: Volume III: Cardiovascular Events (Cham: Springer International Publishing)
A chapter in an edited book
Rauch A, Baschant U and Tuckermann J 2013 Lessons from Glucocorticoid Receptor Action in Bone: New Ways to Avoid Side Effects of Steroid Therapy Osteoimmunology: Interactions of the Immune and Skeletal Systems ed Y Choi (New York, NY: Springer) pp 31–48

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biomedical Materials.

Blog post
Andrew E 2013 New Species Of Scorpion Discovered IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 2005 NASA: More Knowledge Needed to Determine Best Alternatives to Provide Space Station Logistics Support (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lara C 2015 Bullying victimization among adolescent students: A qualitative study Doctoral dissertation (Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly M 1992 A Few Workers Keep Clinton’s Campaign on Track New York Times A11

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBiomedical Materials
AbbreviationBiomed. Mater.
ISSN (print)1748-6041
ISSN (online)1748-605X
Biomedical Engineering

Other styles