How to format your references using the Frontiers in Craniofacial Biology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Craniofacial Biology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Check, E. (2003). Report backs Smithsonian research. Nature 421, 198.
A journal article with 2 authors
Byrne, S., and Ingersoll, A. P. (2003). A sublimation model for martian south polar ice features. Science 299, 1051–1053.
A journal article with 3 authors
Peng, Y., Maiolino, R., and Cochrane, R. (2015). Strangulation as the primary mechanism for shutting down star formation in galaxies. Nature 521, 192–195.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Venegas, C., Kumar, S., Franklin, B. S., Dierkes, T., Brinkschulte, R., Tejera, D., et al. (2017). Microglia-derived ASC specks cross-seed amyloid-β in Alzheimer’s disease. Nature 552, 355–361.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dos Santos, E. C., Jr, and Cabral da Silva, E. R. (2014). ADVANCED POWER ELECTRONICS CONVERTERS. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Faggini, M., and Lux, T. eds. (2009). Coping with the Complexity of Economics. Milano: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Plöger, P. G., Pervölz, K., Mies, C., Eyerich, P., Brenner, M., and Nebel, B. (2012). “Component Based Architecture for an Intelligent Mobile Manipulator,” in Towards Service Robots for Everyday Environments: Recent Advances in Designing Service Robots for Complex Tasks in Everyday Environments Springer Tracts in Advanced Robotics., eds. E. Prassler, M. Zöllner, R. Bischoff, W. Burgard, R. Haschke, M. Hägele, et al. (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer), 19–42.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Craniofacial Biology.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. (2016). Goodbye, Rosetta: World Bids Farewell As Spacecraft Ends Mission With Comet Impact. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1973). Review of Selected Aspects of the Bilingual Education Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kim, S. A. (2009). Development of an age-appropriate, facility-specific nutrition screening and assessment tool for the elderly.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wilson, M. (2017). Atmosphere Is Tempered At Puerto Rican Day Parade. New York Times, A17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Check, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Byrne and Ingersoll, 2003; Check, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Byrne and Ingersoll, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Venegas et al., 2017)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Craniofacial Biology
AbbreviationFront. Physiol.
ISSN (online)1664-042X
Physiology (medical)

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