How to format your references using the Frontiers in Craniofacial Biology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Craniofacial Biology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Weydt, P. (2000). Biomedical centre memorial to victims of Nazi research. Nature 403, 816.
A journal article with 2 authors
Boal, A. K., and Rosenzweig, A. C. (2012). Biochemistry. A radical route for nitrogenase carbide insertion. Science 337, 1617–1618.
A journal article with 3 authors
Dumont, S., Salmon, E. D., and Mitchison, T. J. (2012). Deformations within moving kinetochores reveal different sites of active and passive force generation. Science 337, 355–358.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Bargheer, M., Zhavoronkov, N., Gritsai, Y., Woo, J. C., Kim, D. S., Woerner, M., et al. (2004). Coherent atomic motions in a nanostructure studied by femtosecond X-ray diffraction. Science 306, 1771–1773.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kondrashov, A. S. (2017). Crumbling Genome. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Bellout, H. (2014). Incompressible Bipolar and Non-Newtonian Viscous Fluid Flow. , ed. F. Bloom Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Álvarez, P., Hernández, S., Fabra, J., and Ezpeleta, J. (2016). “Cost Estimation for the Provisioning of Computing Resources to Execute Bag-of-Tasks Applications in the Amazon Cloud,” in Economics of Grids, Clouds, Systems, and Services: 12th International Conference, GECON 2015, Cluj-Napoca, Romania, September 15-17, 2015, Revised Selected Papers Lecture Notes in Computer Science., eds. J. Altmann, G. C. Silaghi, and O. F. Rana (Cham: Springer International Publishing), 65–77.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Craniofacial Biology.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. (2016). Check Out These Awesome Pictures Of A Space Shuttle Tank’s Trip Through Los Angeles. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1969). Federal Support for Research and Education: Costs and Benefits. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lieberman, D. S. (2017). “Stroke Your Thoroughbreds and Kick Your Donkeys”: Power and the Secondary Administrative Distribution of Teaching Assignments.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rosenberg, E. (2016). Doctor Is Charged in Death After an Abortion. New York Times, A21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Weydt, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Weydt, 2000; Boal and Rosenzweig, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Boal and Rosenzweig, 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Bargheer et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Craniofacial Biology
AbbreviationFront. Physiol.
ISSN (online)1664-042X
Physiology (medical)

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