How to format your references using the Frontiers in Craniofacial Biology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Craniofacial Biology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fischer, D. (2012). Planetary science: early start for rocky planets. Nature 486, 331–332.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kasthuri, N., and Lichtman, J. W. (2003). The role of neuronal identity in synaptic competition. Nature 424, 426–430.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ferain, I., Colinge, C. A., and Colinge, J.-P. (2011). Multigate transistors as the future of classical metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors. Nature 479, 310–316.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Guimerà, R., Uzzi, B., Spiro, J., and Amaral, L. A. N. (2005). Team assembly mechanisms determine collaboration network structure and team performance. Science 308, 697–702.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Liautaud, M. (2016). Breaking Through. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Yakovyna, V., Mayr, H. C., Nikitchenko, M., Zholtkevych, G., Spivakovsky, A., and Batsakis, S. eds. (2016). Information and Communication Technologies in Education, Research, and Industrial Applications: 11th International Conference, ICTERI 2015, Lviv, Ukraine, May 14-16, 2015, Revised Selected Papers. 1st ed. 2016. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Hwang, W. (2015). “Biofilament Dynamics: Line-to-Rod-Level Descriptions,” in Multiscale Modeling in Biomechanics and Mechanobiology, eds. S. De, W. Hwang, and E. Kuhl (London: Springer), 63–83.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Craniofacial Biology.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. (2017). Here’s What A Map Of The US Looks Like If You Resize Each State By Population Density. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1997). Student Loans: Potential Effects of Raising Statutory Audit Threshold. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tang, J. (2013). Understanding the college experiences of Cambodian American students.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, K. (2002). The Bunker, an Orphan, Finds a Temporary Home. New York Times, 144.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Fischer, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Fischer, 2012; Kasthuri and Lichtman, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kasthuri and Lichtman, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Guimerà et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Craniofacial Biology
AbbreviationFront. Physiol.
ISSN (online)1664-042X
Physiology (medical)

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