How to format your references using the Frontiers in Craniofacial Biology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Craniofacial Biology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Giles, J. (2003). UK universities face star treatment in funding revamp. Nature 423, 574.
A journal article with 2 authors
Verchère, A., and Menon, A. K. (2015). Structural biology: Lipid gymnastics. Nature 524, 420–422.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kalas, P., Graham, J. R., and Clampin, M. (2005). A planetary system as the origin of structure in Fomalhaut’s dust belt. Nature 435, 1067–1070.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Wang, J., Liu, J., Hu, Y., Ying, S.-H., and Feng, M.-G. (2013). Cytokinesis-required Cdc14 is a signaling hub of asexual development and multi-stress tolerance in Beauveria bassiana. Sci. Rep. 3, 3086.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Blanchet, G., and Charbit, M. (2015). Digital Signal and Image Processing Using Matlab®. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Subrahmanyam, K. (2011). Digital Youth: The Role of Media in Development. , ed. D. Smahel New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Spoor, M. (2005). “Inequality, Poverty and Conflict in Transition Economies,” in Globalisation, Poverty and Conflict: A Critical “Development” Reader, ed. M. Spoor (Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands), 47–65.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Craniofacial Biology.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015). More Than 200 Life-Extending Genes Identified. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1993). Federal Research: Aging Federal Laboratories Need Repairs and Upgrades. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Arens, J. L. (2015). Power, Oppression, and Group Difference Interrogation: A Call to Social Justice Movement Organizations.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin, J., and Wingfield, N. (2017). Amazon Suspends Executive Accused of Sex Harassment. New York Times, B6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Giles, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Giles, 2003; Verchère and Menon, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Verchère and Menon, 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Wang et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Craniofacial Biology
AbbreviationFront. Physiol.
ISSN (online)1664-042X
Physiology (medical)

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