How to format your references using the Biogerontology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biogerontology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Velasquez-Manoff M (2015) Genetics: Relative risk. Nature 527:S116-7
A journal article with 2 authors
Indriolo E, Goring DR (2010) Plant science. Pollen gets more complex. Science 330:767–768
A journal article with 3 authors
Snyder A, Pamer E, Wolchok J (2015) IMMUNOTHERAPY. Could microbial therapy boost cancer immunotherapy? Science 350:1031–1032
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Long Z, Zhou Y, Chen G, et al (2014) C3N4-H5PMo10V2O40: a dual-catalysis system for reductant-free aerobic oxidation of benzene to phenol. Sci Rep 4:3651

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Soprano A (2015) Liquidity Management. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Rajesh A, Sinha R (eds) (2015) Crohn’s Disease: Current Concepts. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Carretta P, Keren A (2011) NMR and µSR in Highly Frustrated Magnets. In: Lacroix C, Mendels P, Mila F (eds) Introduction to Frustrated Magnetism: Materials, Experiments, Theory. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 79–105

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biogerontology.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014) Scientists Discover Star Trek Style Invisible “Shield” Thousands Of Miles Above Earth. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1974) Salary of Executive Director, National Advisory Council on Vocational Education. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Winchester CL (2013) Alleghanian plutonism in the eastern Blue Ridge province of the southern Appalachians: Origin and tectonic setting. Doctoral dissertation, University of North Carolina

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Buckley C (2017) Tycoon’s Claims Reverberate in China Despite Censorship and Thin Evidence. New York Times A9

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Velasquez-Manoff 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Indriolo and Goring 2010; Velasquez-Manoff 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Indriolo and Goring 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Long et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleBiogerontology
ISSN (print)1389-5729
ISSN (online)1573-6768
Geriatrics and Gerontology

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