How to format your references using the American Journal of Primatology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for American Journal of Primatology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Burns, M. A. (2002). Analytic chemistry. Everyone’s a (future) chemist. Science (New York, N.Y.), 296(5574), 1818–1819.
A journal article with 2 authors
Cowan, N., & Rouder, J. N. (2009). Comment on “Dynamic shifts of limited working memory resources in human vision.” Science (New York, N.Y.), 323(5916), 877; author reply 877.
A journal article with 3 authors
Spencer, T. J., Osborn, T., & Kohl, P. A. (2008). Materials science. High-frequency chip connections. Science (New York, N.Y.), 320(5877), 756–757.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Huang, X., Zhao, J., Su, Y., Chen, Z., & King, R. B. (2014). Design of three-shell icosahedral matryoshka clusters A@B₁₂@A2₂₀ (A = Sn, Pb; B = Mg, Zn, Cd, Mn). Scientific Reports, 4, 6915.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Habib, M. A. R. (2010). Literary Criticism from Plato to the Present. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Rutkowski, L., Scherer, R., Tadeusiewicz, R., Zadeh, L. A., & Zurada, J. M. (Eds.). (2010). Artifical Intelligence and Soft Computing: 10th International Conference, ICAISC 2010, Zakopane, Poland, June 13-17, 2010, Part II (Vol. 6114). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Okecha, A. A., & Newton-Fisher, N. E. (2006). The Diet of Olive Baboons (Papio anubis) in the Budongo Forest Reserve, Uganda. In N. E. Newton-Fisher, H. Notman, J. D. Paterson, & V. Reynolds (Eds.), Primates of Western Uganda (pp. 61–73). New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for American Journal of Primatology.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2014, October 31). Vaccine Means Safe Sex For Koalas. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1994). Space Shuttle: NASA’s Plans for Repairing or Replacing a Damaged or Destroyed Orbiter (No. NSIAD-94-197). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Koons, L. M. (2013). An outreach program for homeless individuals: A grant proposal (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg, B. (2017, September 28). Film Series. New York Times, p. C21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Burns, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Burns, 2002; Cowan & Rouder, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Cowan & Rouder, 2009)
  • Three authors: (Spencer, Osborn, & Kohl, 2008)
  • 6 or more authors: (Huang, Zhao, Su, Chen, & King, 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleAmerican Journal of Primatology
AbbreviationAm. J. Primatol.
ISSN (print)0275-2565
ISSN (online)1098-2345
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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