How to format your references using the Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Taylor P (2008) Personal genomes: when consent gets in the way. Nature 456:32–33
A journal article with 2 authors
Krasnopolsky VA, Feldman PD (2001) Detection of molecular hydrogen in the atmosphere of Mars. Science 294:1914–1917
A journal article with 3 authors
Yamaguchi M, Shiga M, Kaburaki H (2005) Grain boundary decohesion by impurity segregation in a nickel-sulfur system. Science 307:393–397
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Bahr C, von Paleske L, Uslu VV, et al (2018) A Myc enhancer cluster regulates normal and leukaemic haematopoietic stem cell hierarchies. Nature 553:515–520

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Held T (2014) In-situ-Verfahren zur Boden- und Grundwassersanierung. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany
An edited book
Dinklage A, Klinger T, Marx G, Schweikhard L (2005) Plasma Physics: Confinement, Transport and Collective Effects. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Nielsen T, Kristensen NH (2008) Ethical Traceability in the Bacon Supply Chain. In: Coff C, Barling D, Korthals M, Nielsen T (eds) Ethical Traceability and Communicating Food. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 83–123

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery.

Blog post
Luntz S (2016) Heatwaves Are Destroying Kelp Forests As Well As Coral Reefs. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2017) Data Center Optimization: Agencies Need to Complete Plans to Address Inconsistencies in Reported Savings. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Solomon RB (2017) Analysis of Emergency Responder Preparedness to Active Shooter Incidents in Santa Barbara, Ventura, Los Angeles, and Riverside Counties. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Caba S (2015) Free Stay in Luxury! (Just Feed the Fish). New York Times TR7

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBiomass Conversion and Biorefinery
AbbreviationBiomass Convers. Biorefin.
ISSN (print)2190-6815
ISSN (online)2190-6823
ScopeRenewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment

Other styles