How to format your references using the Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Heisenberg M (2009) Is free will an illusion? Nature 459:164–165
A journal article with 2 authors
Marx FG, Uhen MD (2010) Climate, critters, and cetaceans: Cenozoic drivers of the evolution of modern whales. Science 327:993–996
A journal article with 3 authors
Finkelstein IJ, Visnapuu M-L, Greene EC (2010) Single-molecule imaging reveals mechanisms of protein disruption by a DNA translocase. Nature 468:983–987
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Nahlen BL, Korenromp EL, Miller JM, Shibuya K (2005) Malaria risk: estimating clinical episodes of malaria. Nature 437:E3; discussion E4-5

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sahinoglu M (2016) Cyber-Risk Informatics. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
François D (2012) Mechanical Behaviour of Materials: Volume 1: Micro- and Macroscopic Constitutive Behaviour. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht
A chapter in an edited book
Raoprasert T, Islam SMN (2010) Preliminary Data Analysis and Results: Descriptive Statistics and Reliability Tests. In: Islam SMN (ed) Designing an Efficient Management System: Modeling of Convergence Factors Exemplified by the Case of Japanese Businesses in Thailand. Physica-Verlag HD, Heidelberg, pp 95–110

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery.

Blog post
Luntz S (2014) DNA Scissors Can Perform Surgery On Your Genes. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1983) Bureau of Indian Affairs Plans To Consolidate Off-Reservation Indian Boarding Schools. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mazyck BS (2012) Leadership behavior and teacher attrition: A qualitative phenomenological inquiry of job satisfaction. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly K (2010) Achieving Techno-Literacy. New York Times MM21

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBiomass Conversion and Biorefinery
AbbreviationBiomass Convers. Biorefin.
ISSN (print)2190-6815
ISSN (online)2190-6823
ScopeRenewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment

Other styles