How to format your references using the Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gee H (2002) Progressive evolution: aspirational thinking. Nature 420:611
A journal article with 2 authors
Prawer S, Greentree AD (2008) Applied physics. Diamond for quantum computing. Science 320:1601–1602
A journal article with 3 authors
Cziczo DJ, Thomson DS, Murphy DM (2001) Ablation, flux, and atmospheric implications of meteors inferred from stratospheric aerosol. Science 291:1772–1775
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Zhu Y, Zhuang J, Ge X, et al (2013) Identifcation of a novel mutation p.I240T in the FRMD7 gene in a family with congenital nystagmus. Sci Rep 3:3084

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Weber P, Simon C (2016) Benefits of Bayesian Network Models. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Brooks AJ, Clasper J, Midwinter M, et al (2011) Ryan’s Ballistic Trauma: A Practical Guide. Springer, London
A chapter in an edited book
Drame ER (2016) Crisscross Applesauce: Reflections on Intertwined Identities. In: Drame ER, Irby DJ (eds) Black Participatory Research: Power, Identity, and the Struggle for Justice in Education. Palgrave Macmillan US, New York, NY, pp 55–68

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery.

Blog post
Hale T (2016) Russian Scientists Are Trapped By Polar Bears On A Remote Siberian Island. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1971) Charges for Launch Support Services Furnished by the Air Force to the Communications Satellite Corporation (Comsat). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Jenrich MA (2017) “To treat her as a woman”: African American women and respectability in New York, 1860-1890. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly M (1992) THE 1992 CAMPAIGN: The Democrats; As Race Looks Tighter, Theme Is Truth and Trust. New York Times A1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBiomass Conversion and Biorefinery
AbbreviationBiomass Convers. Biorefin.
ISSN (print)2190-6815
ISSN (online)2190-6823
ScopeRenewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment

Other styles