How to format your references using the Respiratory Medicine and Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Respiratory Medicine and Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wallsten S. High-tech cluster bombs. Nature 2004;428:121–2.
A journal article with 2 authors
Eliades SJ, Wang X. Neural substrates of vocalization feedback monitoring in primate auditory cortex. Nature 2008;453:1102–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
Desai BS, Chadha A, Cook B. The stum gene is essential for mechanical sensing in proprioceptive neurons. Science 2014;343:1256–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Bourrier V, Lovis C, Beust H, Ehrenreich D, Henry GW, Astudillo-Defru N, et al. Orbital misalignment of the Neptune-mass exoplanet GJ 436b with the spin of its cool star. Nature 2018;553:477–80.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mather PM, Koch M. Computer Processing of Remotely-Sensed Images. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2011.
An edited book
Benguria R, Friedman E, Mantoiu M, editors. Spectral Analysis of Quantum Hamiltonians: Spectral Days 2010. vol. 224. Basel: Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Guerraoui R, Letia M. Disjoint-Access Parallelism Does Not Entail Scalability. In: Noubir G, Raynal M, editors. Networked Systems: Second International Conference, NETYS 2014, Marrakech, Morocco, May 15-17, 2014. Revised Selected Papers, Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014, p. 41–56.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Respiratory Medicine and Research.

Blog post
Luntz S. The Earliest Life In The Universe Could Have Formed On Planets Made Of Diamond. IFLScience 2016. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Indian Affairs: Actions Needed to Better Manage Indian School Construction Projects. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2017.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ulaganathan MN. Building a volunteered geographic information system (VGIS): A mobile application for disaster management. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2016.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cain S. Followers Wanted. New York Times 2017:SR1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleRespiratory Medicine and Research
ISSN (print)2590-0412

Other styles