How to format your references using the Respiratory Medicine and Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Respiratory Medicine and Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Krauss TF. Physics. Control at the quantum level. Science 2005;308:1122–3.
A journal article with 2 authors
van Ee R, Anderson BL. Motion direction, speed and orientation in binocular matching. Nature 2001;410:690–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
Joliveau E, Smith J, Wolfe J. Acoustics: tuning of vocal tract resonance by sopranos. Nature 2004;427:116.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Tao H-S, Chen Y-H, Lin H-F, Liu H-D, Liu W-M. Layer anti-ferromagnetism on bilayer honeycomb lattice. Sci Rep 2014;4:5367.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dye FJ. Dictionary of Stem Cells, Regenerative Medicine, and Translational Medicine. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2017.
An edited book
Blythe MA, Overbeeke K, Monk AF, Wright PC, editors. Funology: From Usability to Enjoyment. vol. 3. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
Escobar S, Sasse R, Meseguer J. Folding Variant Narrowing and Optimal Variant Termination. In: Ölveczky PC, editor. Rewriting Logic and Its Applications: 8th International Workshop, WRLA 2010, Held as a Satellite Event of ETAPS 2010, Paphos, Cyprus, March 20-21, 2010, Revised Selected Papers, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010, p. 52–68.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Respiratory Medicine and Research.

Blog post
Davis J. M&M-Spewing Drones Employed To Tackle The Plague In Endangered Ferrets. IFLScience 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Office of Education Contracts With Consultants, Experts, and Consulting Organizations. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1975.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cannon CA. Comparison of language arts scores between computerized and teacher differentiation of instruction. Doctoral dissertation. Capella University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Williams J. What You’ll Be Reading in 2017. New York Times 2016:BR4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleRespiratory Medicine and Research
ISSN (print)2590-0412

Other styles