How to format your references using the Biological Procedures Online citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biological Procedures Online. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Fischer KM. Waning buoyancy in the crustal roots of old mountains. Nature. 2002;417:933–6.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Sakaguchi S, Powrie F. Emerging challenges in regulatory T cell function and biology. Science. 2007;317:627–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Mustard JF, Cooper CD, Rifkin MK. Evidence for recent climate change on Mars from the identification of youthful near-surface ground ice. Nature. 2001;412:411–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Schenkl S, van Mourik F, van der Zwan G, Haacke S, Chergui M. Probing the ultrafast charge translocation of photoexcited retinal in bacteriorhodopsin. Science. 2005;309:917–20.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Yu SF. Analysis and Design of Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2005.
An edited book
1. Gupta P. Healing Traditions of the Northwestern Himalayas. Sharma VK, Sharma S, editors. New Delhi: Springer India; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Sebastiani P, Jeneralczuk J, Ramoni MF. Design and Analysis of Screening Experiments with Microarrays. In: Dean A, Lewis S, editors. Screening: Methods for Experimentation in Industry, Drug Discovery, and Genetics. New York, NY: Springer; 2006. p. 115–38.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biological Procedures Online.

Blog post
1. Carpineti A. New Theory Of Gravity Tries To Explain Dark Matter [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Electronic Government: Challenges to the Adoption of Smart Card Technology. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2003 Sep. Report No.: GAO-03-1108T.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Berkowitz ES. Some novel phenomena at high density [Doctoral dissertation]. [College Park, MD]: University of Maryland, College Park; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Kenigsberg B. An Attack’s Fresh Resonance. New York Times. 2017 Feb 2;C6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBiological Procedures Online
AbbreviationBiol. Proced. Online
ISSN (online)1480-9222
ScopeGeneral Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology

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