How to format your references using the Biological Procedures Online citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biological Procedures Online. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Hoag H. Coal-fired power plant to bury issue of emissions. Nature. 2003;422:7.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Phillpot SR, Sinnott SB. Materials science. Simulating multifunctional structures. Science. 2009;325:1634–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Lin DY-W, Huang S, Chen J. Crystal structures of a polypeptide processing and secretion transporter. Nature. 2015;523:425–30.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Matsuishi S, Toda Y, Miyakawa M, Hayashi K, Kamiya T, Hirano M, et al. High-density electron anions in a nanoporous single crystal: [Ca24Al28O64]4+(4e-). Science. 2003;301:626–9.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Tagliani M. The Practical Guide to Wall Street. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2009.
An edited book
1. Gogolin AO. Lectures on Complex Integration. Tsitsishvili EG, Komnik A, editors. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Litster S, Djilali N. Performance Analysis of Microstructured Fuel Cells for Portable Applications. In: Kakaç S, Pramuanjaroenkij A, Vasiliev L, editors. Mini-Micro Fuel Cells: Fundamentals and Applications. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2008. p. 47–74.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biological Procedures Online.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Promising Prognosis As Cancer Deaths Continue To Fall. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. District of Columbia: D.C. Public Schools Inappropriately Used Gas Utility Contract for Renovations. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2001 Sep. Report No.: GAO-01-963.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Pease M. Progress towards the Synthesis of a Potent, Bioavailable and Selective Dimethylarginine Dimethylaminohydrolase-1 Inactivator [Doctoral dissertation]. [Edwardsville, IL]: Southern Illinois University; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Cowen T. For Small Donors, Better Giving Through Science. New York Times. 2015 Aug 14;BU6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBiological Procedures Online
AbbreviationBiol. Proced. Online
ISSN (online)1480-9222
ScopeGeneral Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology

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