How to format your references using the Biological Procedures Online citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biological Procedures Online. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Brunham RC. IMMUNOLOGY. A Chlamydia vaccine on the horizon. Science. 2015;348:1322–3.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Singh BP, Cowie AL. Long-term influence of biochar on native organic carbon mineralisation in a low-carbon clayey soil. Sci Rep. 2014;4:3687.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Plaks V, Koopman CD, Werb Z. Cancer. Circulating tumor cells. Science. 2013;341:1186–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Pan JW, Simon C, Brukner C, Zeilinger A. Entanglement purification for quantum communication. Nature. 2001;410:1067–70.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Korn GA. Advanced Dynamic-System Simulation. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
1. Yang Q, Zhang J-M, Zheng H, Yao Y, editors. Constitutive Modeling of Geomaterials: Advances and New Applications. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Huebner AR, Somparn P, Benjachat T, Leelahavanichkul A, Avihingsanon Y, Fenton RA, et al. Exosomes in Urine Biomarker Discovery. In: Gao Y, editor. Urine Proteomics in Kidney Disease Biomarker Discovery. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2015. p. 43–58.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biological Procedures Online.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Would You Eat Synthetic Shrimp? [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Success of the Programed School Input Program Justifies Expansion. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1982 Sep. Report No.: FPCD-82-53.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. DeLutis-Eichenberger AN. El proceso semiótico de un héroe decimonónico: Un estudio en torno a los “textos-tumbas” de Andrés Bello [Doctoral dissertation]. [College Park, MD]: University of Maryland, College Park; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Chira S. When a House Falls in the Forest. New York Times. 2013 Sep 26;D4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBiological Procedures Online
AbbreviationBiol. Proced. Online
ISSN (online)1480-9222
ScopeGeneral Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology

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