How to format your references using the Frontiers in Headache Medicine and Facial Pain citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Headache Medicine and Facial Pain. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Caruana, C. (2005). An eastern promise of regeneration. Nature 435, 998–999.
A journal article with 2 authors
Laanisto, L., and Hutchings, M. J. (2015). Comment on “Worldwide evidence of a unimodal relationship between productivity and plant species richness.” Science 350, 1177.
A journal article with 3 authors
Takeuchi, A., Kim, B., and Matsuoka, S. (2013). The mitochondrial Na+-Ca2+ exchanger, NCLX, regulates automaticity of HL-1 cardiomyocytes. Sci. Rep. 3, 2766.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Sanai, N., Berger, M. S., Garcia-Verdugo, J. M., and Alvarez-Buylla, A. (2007). Comment on “Human neuroblasts migrate to the olfactory bulb via a lateral ventricular extension.” Science 318, 393; author reply 393.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Quadbeck-Seeger, H.-J. (2007). World of the Elements. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Brouns, I. (2012). Novel Insights in the Neurochemistry and Function of Pulmonary Sensory Receptors. , eds. I. Pintelon, J.-P. Timmermans, and D. Adriaensen Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Grobusch, M. P., and Kremsner, P. G. (2005). “Uncomplicated Malaria,” in Malaria: Drugs, Disease and Post-genomic Biology Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology., eds. R. W. Compans, M. D. Cooper, T. Honjo, H. Koprowski, F. Melchers, M. B. A. Oldstone, et al. (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer), 81–104.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Headache Medicine and Facial Pain.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2015). Male Spider Mutilates Females’ Genitalia To Prevent Her From Mating Ever Again. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1998). Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Progress Made at Department of Labor, But Key Systems at Risk. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Pahuja, S. (2013). Bandwidth feedback effects on retained movements in young and old adults.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow, L. (2006). Route 110 Plan Worries Some Merchants. New York Times, 14LI2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Caruana, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Caruana, 2005; Laanisto and Hutchings, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Laanisto and Hutchings, 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Sanai et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Headache Medicine and Facial Pain
AbbreviationFront. Neurol.
ISSN (online)1664-2295
ScopeClinical Neurology

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