How to format your references using the Frontiers in Headache Medicine and Facial Pain citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Headache Medicine and Facial Pain. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
O’Shea, J. N. (2005). Applied physics. Enhanced: molecular orbitals tell the story. Science 310, 453–454.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ellis, G., and Silk, J. (2014). Scientific method: Defend the integrity of physics. Nature 516, 321–323.
A journal article with 3 authors
Munday, J. N., Capasso, F., and Parsegian, V. A. (2009). Measured long-range repulsive Casimir-Lifshitz forces. Nature 457, 170–173.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Kato, Y., Myers, R. C., Gossard, A. C., and Awschalom, D. D. (2004). Coherent spin manipulation without magnetic fields in strained semiconductors. Nature 427, 50–53.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Douglas, J., and Noy, E. A. (2010). Building Surveys and Reports. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Feldman, T., Franzen, O., Low, R., Rogers, J., and Yeo, K. K. eds. (2013). Atlas of Percutaneous Edge-to-Edge Mitral Valve Repair. London: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Loke, S. W. (2011). “Towards Real-Time Context Awareness for Mobile Users: A Declarative Meta-Programming Approach,” in Supporting Real Time Decision-Making: The Role of Context in Decision Support on the Move Annals of Information Systems., eds. F. Burstein, P. Brézillon, and A. Zaslavsky (Boston, MA: Springer US), 89–112.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Headache Medicine and Facial Pain.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2014). Why Did This Mysterious Ancient Chinese Civilization Disappear? IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1979). Improvements Recommended for Better Oversight of the Capitol Page School. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bourne, B. B. (2009). Phenomenological study of response to organizational change: Baby Boomers, Generation X, and Generation Y.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Nordland, R., and Kanter, J. (2016). Turkey and E.U. Near Breaking Point in Talks on Membership. New York Times, A4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (O’Shea, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Ellis and Silk, 2014; O’Shea, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ellis and Silk, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Kato et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Headache Medicine and Facial Pain
AbbreviationFront. Neurol.
ISSN (online)1664-2295
ScopeClinical Neurology

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