How to format your references using the Biological Journal of the Linnean Society citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biological Journal of the Linnean Society (BJLS). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Junge C. 2011. Morbidity: A personal response. Nature 480: S14-5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Begley CG & Ellis LM. 2012. Drug development: Raise standards for preclinical cancer research. Nature 483: 531–533.
A journal article with 3 authors
Finkelstein IJ, Visnapuu ML & Greene EC. 2010. Single-molecule imaging reveals mechanisms of protein disruption by a DNA translocase. Nature 468: 983–987.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Stephenson AE, DeYoreo JJ, Wu L, Wu KJ, Hoyer J & Dove PM. 2008. Peptides enhance magnesium signature in calcite: insights into origins of vital effects. Science (New York, N.Y.) 322: 724–727.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bonem JM. 2011. Problem Solving for Process Operators and Specialists. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Blanke CD, Rödel C & Talamonti MS (Eds.). 2011. Gastrointestinal Oncology: A Practical Guide. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Endres D, Fuest C & Spengel C. 2010. Tax Planning Strategies. In: Endres D, Fuest C, Spengel C, eds. Company Taxation in the Asia-Pacific Region, India, and Russia. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 55–62.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biological Journal of the Linnean Society.

Blog post
Luntz S. 2015. How To Sex A Dinosaur. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1990. Supplemental Student Loans: Legislative Changes Have Sharply Reduced Loan Volume. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Randall SL. 2010. Psychologists’ use of, familiarity, and comfort with Alcoholics Anonymous Slogans in psychotherapy.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rojas R. 2015. A Smelly Visit to the City’s Sewer System Ends With 3 Men Under Arrest. New York Times: A21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Junge, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Junge, 2011; Begley & Ellis, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Begley & Ellis, 2012)
  • Three authors: (Finkelstein, Visnapuu, & Greene, 2010)
  • 4 or more authors: (Stephenson et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleBiological Journal of the Linnean Society
AbbreviationBiol. J. Linn. Soc. Lond.
ISSN (print)0024-4066
ISSN (online)1095-8312
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

Other styles