How to format your references using the Cytokine: X citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cytokine: X. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
C. Stringer, Evolution: What makes a modern human, Nature. 485 (2012) 33–35.
A journal article with 2 authors
M. Nedeva, M. Stampfer, Science policy. From “science in Europe” to “European science,” Science. 336 (2012) 982–983.
A journal article with 3 authors
H. Hillebrandt, K.J. Friston, S.-J. Blakemore, Effective connectivity during animacy perception--dynamic causal modelling of Human Connectome Project data, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 6240.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
D.B. Seligson, S. Horvath, T. Shi, H. Yu, S. Tze, M. Grunstein, S.K. Kurdistani, Global histone modification patterns predict risk of prostate cancer recurrence, Nature. 435 (2005) 1262–1266.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
F. Burk, Lebesgue Measure and Integration, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 1997.
An edited book
J. Basedow, U. Magnus, R. Wolfrum, eds., The Hamburg Lectures on Maritime Affairs 2007 & 2008, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
C. Wu, D. Wu, S. Yan, Y. Guo, Sensor Deployment in Bayesian Compressive Sensing Based Environmental Monitoring, in: I. Stojmenovic, Z. Cheng, S. Guo (Eds.), Mobile and Ubiquitous Systems: Computing, Networking, and Services: 10th International Conference, MOBIQUITOUS 2013, Tokyo, Japan, December 2-4, 2013, Revised Selected Papers, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2014: pp. 37–51.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cytokine: X.

Blog post
D. Andrew, Here’s How To Convince The Brain That Prosthetic Legs Are Real, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Regulatory Programs: Opportunities to Enhance Oversight of the Real Estate Appraisal Industry, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2004.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
I. Haffner, Experimental Investigation of Temperature Dependency in Transmission Characteristics of Liquid Crystals by Spectroscopy, Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M.W. Walsh, Alabama Governor Fails to Prevent Jefferson County’s Record $4 Billion Bankruptcy Filing, New York Times. (2011) A16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCytokine: X
ISSN (print)2590-1532

Other styles