How to format your references using the Electronics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Electronics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Boebinger, G.S. Physics. An abnormal normal state. Science 2009, 323, 590–591.
A journal article with 2 authors
Saviane, C.; Silver, R.A. Fast vesicle reloading and a large pool sustain high bandwidth transmission at a central synapse. Nature 2006, 439, 983–987.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gruber, N.; Keeling, C.D.; Bates, N.R. Interannual variability in the North Atlantic Ocean carbon sink. Science 2002, 298, 2374–2378.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Chatterjee, M.; Osborne, J.; Bestetti, G.; Chang, Y.; Moore, P.S. Viral IL-6-induced cell proliferation and immune evasion of interferon activity. Science 2002, 298, 1432–1435.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Utsuro, M.; Ignatovich, V.K. Handbook of Neutron Optics; Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA: Weinheim, Germany, 2010; ISBN 9783527628780.
An edited book
Telenursing; Kumar, S., Snooks, H., Eds.; Health Informatics; Springer: London, 2011; ISBN 9780857295286.
A chapter in an edited book
Cipollone, E.; Cuomo, F.; Abbagnale, A. A Distributed Procedure for IEEE 802.15.4 PAN Coordinator Election in Emergency Scenarios. In The Internet of Things: 20th Tyrrhenian Workshop on Digital Communications; Giusto, D., Iera, A., Morabito, G., Atzori, L., Eds.; Springer: New York, NY, 2010; pp. 39–48 ISBN 9781441916730.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Electronics.

Blog post
Fang, J. How Wingless Mantises Prevent Face-Planting When They Land Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Traffic Congestion: Activities to Reduce Travel Demand and Air Pollution Are Not Widely Implemented; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1992;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ross, T.A. The surgical technologist learning partnership: A comparison of factors in a preceptor relationship. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix: Phoenix, AZ, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schonbrun, Z. A Dimmed Marquee. New York Times 2013, B11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleElectronics
AbbreviationElectronics (Basel)
ISSN (online)2079-9292

Other styles