How to format your references using the Electronics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Electronics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schiermeier, Q. Benelux: Fertile Ground. Nature 2004, 428, 874–875.
A journal article with 2 authors
Traas, J.; Vernoux, T. Plant Science. Oscillating Roots. Science 2010, 329, 1290–1291.
A journal article with 3 authors
Atran, S.; Axelrod, R.; Davis, R. Social Science. Sacred Barriers to Conflict Resolution. Science 2007, 317, 1039–1040.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Yarrow, K.; Haggard, P.; Heal, R.; Brown, P.; Rothwell, J.C. Illusory Perceptions of Space and Time Preserve Cross-Saccadic Perceptual Continuity. Nature 2001, 414, 302–305.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Adhikari, S.K. Variational Principles and the Numerical Solution of Scattering Problems; Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA: Weinheim, FRG, 2005; ISBN 9783527602803.
An edited book
Models, Algorithms, and Technologies for Network Analysis: Proceedings of the First International Conference on Network Analysis; Goldengorin, B., Kalyagin, V.A., Pardalos, P.M., Eds.; Springer Proceedings in Mathematics & Statistics; Springer: New York, NY, 2013; Vol. 32; ISBN 9781461455738.
A chapter in an edited book
Azzopardi, A. Youth Activism. In Youth: Responding to Lives: An International Reader; Azzopardi, A., Ed.; SensePublishers: Rotterdam, 2013; pp. 45–56 ISBN 9789462094314.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Electronics.

Blog post
Luntz, S. Rubidium Doping Leads To New Solar Cell Efficiency Record Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Estimates of Potential Savings by Retiring Two Aircraft Carriers Early; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1988;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Fuller, J.B. The Woodsman’s Son. Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana: Lafayette, LA, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt), S.K. World Briefing | Europe: Russia: U.S. Begins Return Of Soviet Documents. New York Times 2002, A8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleElectronics
AbbreviationElectronics (Basel)
ISSN (online)2079-9292

Other styles