How to format your references using the Electronics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Electronics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ward-Thompson, D. Isolated star formation: from cloud formation to core collapse. Science 2002, 295, 76–81.
A journal article with 2 authors
Li, W.; Chetelat, R.T. A pollen factor linking inter- and intraspecific pollen rejection in tomato. Science 2010, 330, 1827–1830.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jackson, D.P.; Laws, P.W.; Franklin, S.V. IBI series winner. An inquiry-based curriculum for nonmajors. Science 2012, 335, 418–419.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Stein, A.; Weber, G.; Wahl, M.C.; Jahn, R. Helical extension of the neuronal SNARE complex into the membrane. Nature 2009, 460, 525–528.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Nicu, L.; Leïchlé, T. Micro- and Nanoelectromechanical Biosensors; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2013; ISBN 9781118760857.
An edited book
Integrated Management of Systems, Services, Processes and People in IT: 20th IFIP/IEEE International Workshop on Distributed Systems: Operations and Management, DSOM 2009, Venice, Italy, October 27-28, 2009. Proceedings; Bartolini, C., Gaspary, L.P., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2009; Vol. 5841; ISBN 9783642049880.
A chapter in an edited book
Baartse, M.; Meer, K. An Algebraic Proof of the Real Number PCP Theorem. In Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science 2015: 40th International Symposium, MFCS 2015, Milan, Italy, August 24-28, 2015, Proceedings, Part II; Italiano, G.F., Pighizzini, G., Sannella, D.T., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2015; pp. 50–61 ISBN 9783662480533.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Electronics.

Blog post
Luntz, S. Whether You Respond To A Placebo Can Indicate If You’ll Respond To Antidepressants (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office High Performance Computing and Communications: New Program Direction Would Benefit from a More Focused Effort; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1994;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Turney, J.J. Police supervisory attributes that influence attitude towards Critical Incident Stress Management programs. Doctoral dissertation, Capella University: Minneapolis, MN, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schembari, J. Factory Masterpieces. New York Times 2017, TR1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleElectronics
AbbreviationElectronics (Basel)
ISSN (online)2079-9292

Other styles