How to format your references using the Electronics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Electronics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hirose, K. Geochemistry. Deep Mantle Properties. Science 2010, 327, 151–152.
A journal article with 2 authors
Susiarjo, M.; Bartolomei, M.S. Epigenetics. You Are What You Eat, but What about Your DNA? Science 2014, 345, 733–734.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhang, K.; Zhang, Y.; Wang, S. Enhancing Thermoelectric Properties of Organic Composites through Hierarchical Nanostructures. Sci. Rep. 2013, 3, 3448.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Galindo-Cuspinera, V.; Winnig, M.; Bufe, B.; Meyerhof, W.; Breslin, P.A.S. A TAS1R Receptor-Based Explanation of Sweet “Water-Taste.” Nature 2006, 441, 354–357.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Griskey, R.G. Transport Phenomena and Unit Operations; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2005; ISBN 9780471722052.
An edited book
Computer Science for Environmental Engineering and EcoInformatics: International Workshop, CSEEE 2011, Kunming, China, July 29-31, 2011, Proceedings, Part II; Yu, Y., Yu, Z., Zhao, J., Eds.; Communications in Computer and Information Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2011; Vol. 159; ISBN 9783642226908.
A chapter in an edited book
Anderson, M.S.; Shaw, M.A.; Steneck, N.H.; Konkle, E.; Kamata, T. Research Integrity and Misconduct in the Academic Profession. In Higher Education: Handbook of Theory and Research: Volume 28; Paulsen, M.B., Ed.; Higher Education: Handbook of Theory and Research; Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht, 2013; pp. 217–261 ISBN 9789400758353.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Electronics.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Yellowstone Earthquakes Reveal A Volcanic System Six Times Bigger Than We Thought (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Transportation Security Research: Coordination Needed in Selecting and Implementing Infrastructure Vulnerability Assessments; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2003;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nonu, M.E. Eagle Lake Climate Change during the Holocene and during the Last 100 Years. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario, B. Pearl Jam, Shakur Among Rock Nominees. New York Times 2016, C4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleElectronics
AbbreviationElectronics (Basel)
ISSN (online)2079-9292

Other styles