How to format your references using the Electronics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Electronics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Deweerdt, S. Aetiology: Crucial Clues. Nature 2014, 513, S12-3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Mathieu, R.D.; Geller, A.M. A Binary Star Fraction of 76 per Cent and Unusual Orbit Parameters for the Blue Stragglers of NGC 188. Nature 2009, 462, 1032–1035.
A journal article with 3 authors
Spranger, S.; Bao, R.; Gajewski, T.F. Melanoma-Intrinsic β-Catenin Signalling Prevents Anti-Tumour Immunity. Nature 2015, 523, 231–235.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Kokoszka, J.E.; Waymire, K.G.; Levy, S.E.; Sligh, J.E.; Cai, J.; Jones, D.P.; MacGregor, G.R.; Wallace, D.C. The ADP/ATP Translocator Is Not Essential for the Mitochondrial Permeability Transition Pore. Nature 2004, 427, 461–465.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Schwedt, G. Experimente Rund Um Die Kunststoffe Des Alltags; Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA: Weinheim, Germany, 2013; ISBN 9783527672516.
An edited book
Microbial Linear Plasmids; Meinhardt, F., Klassen, R., Eds.; Microbiology Monographs; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2007; Vol. 7; ISBN 9783540720249.
A chapter in an edited book
Rosenblatt, J.A. Interactive Effects in Information Processing: A Conceptual Framework of the Relationship of Consumer Involvement and Brand Categorization. In Proceedings of the 1988 Academy of Marketing Science (AMS) Annual Conference; Bahn, K.D., Ed.; Developments in Marketing Science: Proceedings of the Academy of Marketing Science; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2015; pp. 23–27 ISBN 9783319170459.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Electronics.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. Underwater Robots Help Scientists See Where Marine Larvae Go And How They Get There Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Transportation Security R&D: TSA and DHS Are Researching and Developing Technologies, but Need to Improve R&D Management; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2004;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Brister, M.H. Attitudes of Agriscience Teachers, Counselors, Administrators, and Students toward Selected Agriscience Programs in Mississippi. Doctoral dissertation, Mississippi State University: Mississippi State, MS, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gustines, G.G. Captain America Will Fight Evil Again. New York Times 2017, C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleElectronics
AbbreviationElectronics (Basel)
ISSN (online)2079-9292

Other styles