How to format your references using the Electronics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Electronics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Karin, M. Nuclear factor-kappaB in cancer development and progression. Nature 2006, 441, 431–436.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hsiao, J.C.; Fong, K. Making big money from small technology. Nature 2004, 428, 218–220.
A journal article with 3 authors
Moore, S.D.; McGinness, K.E.; Sauer, R.T. Structural biology. A glimpse into tmRNA-mediated ribosome rescue. Science 2003, 300, 72–73.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Penterman, R.; Klink, S.I.; de Koning, H.; Nisato, G.; Broer, D.J. Single-substrate liquid-crystal displays by photo-enforced stratification. Nature 2002, 417, 55–58.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Devolder, P.; Janssen, J.; Manca, R. Stochastic Methods for Pension Funds; John Wiley & Sons, Inc: Hoboken, NJ, 2012; ISBN 9781118562031.
An edited book
Gaillardon, P.-E. Disruptive Logic Architectures and Technologies: From Device to System Level; O’Connor, I., Clermidy, F., Eds.; Springer: New York, NY, 2012; ISBN 9781461430575.
A chapter in an edited book
Husain, Z.; Dutta, M. Agency and Satisficing in Kolkata’s IT Sector. In Women in Kolkata’s IT Sector: Satisficing Between Work and Household; Dutta, M., Ed.; SpringerBriefs in Sociology; Springer India: New Delhi, 2014; pp. 97–119 ISBN 9788132215929.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Electronics.

Blog post
Luntz, S. Endangered Mountain Pygmy Possums Born (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Next Generation Air Transportation System: Improved Risk Analysis Could Strengthen FAA’s Global Interoperability Efforts; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2015;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hong, H.J. Acrolein Modification of Human Apolipoprotein A-I Impairs Binding to Phosphatidylglycerol and Lipopolysaccharide of Gram-Negative Bacteria. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard, M. The Seasonal Mix: Camel, Fur and Leather. New York Times 2010, E6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleElectronics
AbbreviationElectronics (Basel)
ISSN (online)2079-9292

Other styles