How to format your references using the Biogeosciences Discussions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biogeosciences Discussions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wellems, T. E.: Plasmodium chloroquine resistance and the search for a replacement antimalarial drug, Science, 298, 124–126, 2002.
A journal article with 2 authors
Miller, A. I. and Foote, M.: Increased longevities of post-Paleozoic marine genera after mass extinctions, Science, 302, 1030–1032, 2003.
A journal article with 3 authors
Prahlad, V., Cornelius, T., and Morimoto, R. I.: Regulation of the cellular heat shock response in Caenorhabditis elegans by thermosensory neurons, Science, 320, 811–814, 2008.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Pascal, J. M., O’Brien, P. J., Tomkinson, A. E., and Ellenberger, T.: Human DNA ligase I completely encircles and partially unwinds nicked DNA, Nature, 432, 473–478, 2004.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Olsen, D.: The Lean Product Playbook, John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ, 2015.
An edited book
Naka, K. (Ed.): Biomineralization I: Crystallization and Self-Organization Process, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, XII, 200 p pp., 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
Lee, T.-K., Bieler, T. R., Kim, C.-U., and Ma, H.: Microstructure Development: Solidification and Isothermal Aging, in: Fundamentals of Lead-Free Solder Interconnect Technology: From Microstructures to Reliability, edited by: Bieler, T. R., Kim, C.-U., and Ma, H., Springer US, Boston, MA, 81–112, 2015.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biogeosciences Discussions.

Blog post
New Horizons Returns Stunning Image Of Charon That Includes A “Mountain In A Moat”:, last access: 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Problems and Needed Improvements in Evaluating Office of Education Programs, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1977.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Pecue, C. J.: Utilizing Audiovisual Stimuli in the Classroom to Facilitate Pronunciation of French Stop Consonants, Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Valerian, S.: For a Brown, the Comeback Trail Leads Home, New York Times, 3rd October, B17, 2013.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wellems, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Wellems, 2002; Miller and Foote, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Miller and Foote, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Pascal et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleBiogeosciences Discussions
AbbreviationBiogeosci. Discuss.
ISSN (online)1810-6285
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Earth-Surface Processes

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