How to format your references using the Biogeosciences Discussions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biogeosciences Discussions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Keppler, H.: Geology: Earth’s deep water reservoir, Nature, 507(7491), 174–175, 2014.
A journal article with 2 authors
Silvente-Poirot, S. and Poirot, M.: Cancer. Cholesterol and cancer, in the balance, Science, 343(6178), 1445–1446, 2014.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rosu, S., Libuda, D. E. and Villeneuve, A. M.: Robust crossover assurance and regulated interhomolog access maintain meiotic crossover number, Science, 334(6060), 1286–1289, 2011.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Yin, Q., Jacobsen, S. B., Yamashita, K., Blichert-Toft, J., Télouk, P. and Albarède, F.: A short timescale for terrestrial planet formation from Hf-W chronometry of meteorites, Nature, 418(6901), 949–952, 2002.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rombach, G.: Spannbetonbau, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH, D-69451 Weinheim, Germany., 2010.
An edited book
Russo, J.: Role of the Transcriptome in Breast Cancer Prevention, edited by I. H. Russo, Springer US, Boston, MA., 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Eddie Ng, Y. K. and Liu, N.: A Development of Novel Integral Method for Prediction of Distorted Inlet Flow Propagation in Axial Compressor, in Compressor Instability with Integral Methods, edited by N. Liu, pp. 77–106, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg., 2007.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biogeosciences Discussions.

Blog post
Andrew, E.: How To Get Off The Couch And Into Exercise, IFLScience [online] Available from: (Accessed 30 October 2018), 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Telecommunications: Information on Participation in the Rural Health Care Pilot Program (GAO-11-25SP, November 2010), an E-supplement to GAO-11-27, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC., 2010.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Narita, D.: Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) and climate change mitigation: An analysis of economic optimality and policy making, Doctoral dissertation, Columbia University, New York, NY., 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Williams, J.: Hamilton Minus Music, New York Times, 26th May, BR4, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Keppler, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Keppler, 2014; Silvente-Poirot and Poirot, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Silvente-Poirot and Poirot, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Yin et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleBiogeosciences Discussions
AbbreviationBiogeosci. Discuss.
ISSN (online)1810-6285
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Earth-Surface Processes

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