How to format your references using the Biogeosciences Discussions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biogeosciences Discussions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Benner, S. A.: Synthetic biology: Act natural, Nature, 421, 118, 2003.
A journal article with 2 authors
Clapham, P. R. and Lu, S.: Vaccinology: precisely tuned antibodies nab HIV, Nature, 477, 416–417, 2011.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ferrand, Y., Crump, M. P., and Davis, A. P.: A synthetic lectin analog for biomimetic disaccharide recognition, Science, 318, 619–622, 2007.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Eshraghi, A., Osman, N. A. A., Gholizadeh, H., Ahmadian, J., Rahmati, B., and Abas, W. A. B. W.: Development and evaluation of new coupling system for lower limb prostheses with acoustic alarm system, Sci. Rep., 3, 2270, 2013.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Charalambides, C. A.: Discrete q-Distributions, John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ, 2016.
An edited book
Gerlach, M., Deckert, J., Double, K., and Koutsilieri, E. (Eds.): Neuropsychiatric Disorders An Integrative Approach, Springer, Vienna, IX, 341 p pp., 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
Ageev, A. A.: A 3/2-Approximation for the Proportionate Two-Machine Flow Shop Scheduling with Minimum Delays, in: Approximation and Online Algorithms: 5th International Workshop, WAOA 2007, Eilat, Israel, October 11-12, 2007. Revised Papers, edited by: Kaklamanis, C. and Skutella, M., Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 55–66, 2008.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biogeosciences Discussions.

Blog post
China’s Smog Kills More Than A Million Each Year – But There’s A Clearer Road Ahead:, last access: 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Magnet Schools: Information on the Grant Award Process, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1987.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mayner, S. W.: Transformational leadership and organizational change during agile and devops initiatives, Doctoral dissertation, Capella University, Minneapolis, MN, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kolomatsky, M.: Where It’s Good to Have Four Legs, New York Times, 21st September, RE2, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Benner, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Benner, 2003; Clapham and Lu, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Clapham and Lu, 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Eshraghi et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleBiogeosciences Discussions
AbbreviationBiogeosci. Discuss.
ISSN (online)1810-6285
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Earth-Surface Processes

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