How to format your references using the Biogeosciences Discussions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biogeosciences Discussions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Yamamoto, A.: Crowded universities cramp more than just students’ style, Nature, 404(6773), 13, 2000.
A journal article with 2 authors
Pastinen, T. and Hudson, T. J.: Cis-acting regulatory variation in the human genome, Science, 306(5696), 647–650, 2004.
A journal article with 3 authors
Yang, G., Pan, F. and Gan, W.-B.: Stably maintained dendritic spines are associated with lifelong memories, Nature, 462(7275), 920–924, 2009.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Liénart, S., Merceron, R., Vanderaa, C., Lambert, F., Colau, D., Stockis, J., van der Woning, B., De Haard, H., Saunders, M., Coulie, P. G., Savvides, S. N. and Lucas, S.: Structural basis of latent TGF-β1 presentation and activation by GARP on human regulatory T cells, Science, 362(6417), 952–956, 2018.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Youssef, H. A.: Machining of Stainless Steels and Super Alloys, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK., 2015.
An edited book
Gellersen, H.-W., Want, R. and Schmidt, A., Eds.: Pervasive Computing: Third International Conference, PERVASIVE 2005, Munich, Germany, May 8-13, 2005. Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg., 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
Fu, X., Zhao, C., Zhang, S. and Wang, X.: Modeling and Simulation of Electricity Markets under Different Environmental Policies, in System Simulation and Scientific Computing: International Conference, ICSC 2012, Shanghai, China, October 27-30, 2012. Proceedings, Part II, edited by T. Xiao, L. Zhang, and S. Ma, pp. 34–43, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg., 2012.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biogeosciences Discussions.

Blog post
Andrew, E.: America Is “Dropping Cyberbombs’’ – But How Do They Work?,” IFLScience [online] Available from: (Accessed 30 October 2018), 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Commercial Space Launches: FAA’s Risk Assessment Process Is Not Yet Updated, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC., 2014.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Verkaik, P.: Enhancing networking protocols in widely deployed devices, Doctoral dissertation, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA., 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rothenberg, B.: French Group Suspends Three Players for Unprofessional Behavior, New York Times, 1st September, B15, 2016.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Yamamoto, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Pastinen and Hudson, 2004; Yamamoto, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Pastinen and Hudson, 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Liénart et al., 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleBiogeosciences Discussions
AbbreviationBiogeosci. Discuss.
ISSN (online)1810-6285
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Earth-Surface Processes

Other styles