How to format your references using the Biogeosciences Discussions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biogeosciences Discussions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Caldecott, K. W.: Cell signaling. The BRCT domain: signaling with friends?, Science, 302(5645), 579–580, 2003.
A journal article with 2 authors
Manne, A. S. and Richels, R. G.: An alternative approach to establishing trade-offs among greenhouse gases, Nature, 410(6829), 675–677, 2001.
A journal article with 3 authors
West, G. B., Brown, J. H. and Enquist, B. J.: A general model for ontogenetic growth, Nature, 413(6856), 628–631, 2001.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Pai, R. A., Humayun, R., Schulberg, M. T., Sengupta, A., Sun, J.-N. and Watkins, J. J.: Mesoporous silicates prepared using preorganized templates in supercritical fluids, Science, 303(5657), 507–510, 2004.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chevallier, J. and Ielpo, F.: The Economics of Commodity Markets, John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester, UK., 2013.
An edited book
Meersman, R. and Tari, Z., Eds.: On the Move to Meaningful Internet Systems: OTM 2008: OTM 2008 Confederated International Conferences, CoopIS, DOA, GADA, IS, and ODBASE 2008, Monterrey, Mexico, November 9-14, 2008, Proceedings, Part I, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg., 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Bauche, J., Bauche-Arnoult, C. and Peyrusse, O.: Modeling of ionic spectra, in Atomic Properties in Hot Plasmas: From Levels to Superconfigurations, edited by C. Bauche-Arnoult and O. Peyrusse, pp. 135–159, Springer International Publishing, Cham., 2015.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biogeosciences Discussions.

Blog post
Luntz, S.: Crowds Get Wiser When They Talk To Each Other, IFLScience, 2017.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Secure Flight: TSA Should Take Additional Steps to Determine Program Effectiveness, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC., 2014.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Yanez, A. M.: Chicano and Black radical activism of the 1960s: A comparison between the Brown Berets and the Black Panther Party in California, Doctoral dissertation, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA., 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M. W.: Settlement Money Patched Nassau County Budget Gaps, New York Times, 4th May, B4, 2012.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Caldecott, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Caldecott, 2003; Manne and Richels, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Manne and Richels, 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Pai et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleBiogeosciences Discussions
AbbreviationBiogeosci. Discuss.
ISSN (online)1810-6285
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Earth-Surface Processes

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