How to format your references using the Biogeosciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biogeosciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Breaker, R. R.: Natural and engineered nucleic acids as tools to explore biology, Nature, 432(7019), 838–845, 2004.
A journal article with 2 authors
Zindl, C. L. and Chaplin, D. D.: Immunology. Tumor immune evasion, Science, 328(5979), 697–698, 2010.
A journal article with 3 authors
Nieder, A., Diester, I. and Tudusciuc, O.: Temporal and spatial enumeration processes in the primate parietal cortex, Science, 313(5792), 1431–1435, 2006.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Santer, B. D., Po-Chedley, S., Zelinka, M. D., Cvijanovic, I., Bonfils, C., Durack, P. J., Fu, Q., Kiehl, J., Mears, C., Painter, J., Pallotta, G., Solomon, S., Wentz, F. J. and Zou, C.-Z.: Human influence on the seasonal cycle of tropospheric temperature, Science, 361(6399), 2018.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sewell, G.: The Numerical Solution of Ordinary and Partial Differential Equations, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ., 2005.
An edited book
Blum, C.: Hybrid Metaheuristics: Powerful Tools for Optimization, edited by G. R. Raidl, Springer International Publishing, Cham., 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Hellman, D.: An Epistemic Defense of Precedent, in Precedent in the United States Supreme Court, edited by C. J. Peters, pp. 63–76, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht., 2013.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biogeosciences.

Blog post
Taub, B.: Study Reveals How The Brain “Rebuilds” Itself In An Attempt To Cure Schizophrenia, IFLScience [online] Available from: (Accessed 30 October 2018), 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Office of Education Should Improve Procedures To Recover Defaulted Loans Under the Guaranteed Student Loan Program, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC., 1971.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Yaceczko, S. D.: A Telehealth Nutrition Manual for an Online Intensive Behavioral Weight Management Program, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA., 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, S.: CHILDREN’S BOOKS, New York Times, 9th March, 724, 2003.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Breaker, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Breaker, 2004; Zindl and Chaplin, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Zindl and Chaplin, 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Santer et al., 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleBiogeosciences
ISSN (print)1726-4170
ISSN (online)1726-4189
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Earth-Surface Processes

Other styles