How to format your references using the Biogeosciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biogeosciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Asphaug, E.: Planetary science. The shifting sands of asteroids, Science, 316(5827), 993–994, 2007.
A journal article with 2 authors
Etienne, R. S. and Rosindell, J.: Comment on “Global correlations in tropical tree species richness and abundance reject neutrality,” Science, 336(6089), 1639; author reply 1639, 2012.
A journal article with 3 authors
Saran, R., Stolojan, V. and Curry, R. J.: Ultrahigh performance C60 nanorod large area flexible photoconductor devices via ultralow organic and inorganic photodoping, Sci. Rep., 4, 5041, 2014.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Zhang, X., Mi, W., Wang, X., Cheng, Y. and Schwingenschlögl, U.: The interface between Gd and monolayer MoS2: a first-principles study, Sci. Rep., 4, 7368, 2014.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sailor, W.: Making RTI Work, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, CA, USA., 2009.
An edited book
Shimada, Y. and Miyakoshi, N., Eds.: Osteoporosis in Orthopedics: Assessment and Therapeutic Options, 1st ed. 2016., Springer Japan, Tokyo., 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Wainer, R.: The Dignity of Children: How to Evaluate Bodies’ (Im)Permeability, in Reframing Disability and Quality of Life: A Global Perspective, edited by N. Warren and L. Manderson, pp. 61–78, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht., 2013.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biogeosciences.

Blog post
Andrew, E.: Tracked Great White Shark May Be Pregnant, IFLScience [online] Available from: (Accessed 30 October 2018), 2014.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Review of Administration of Selected Aspects of the Student-Tutor Education Program by the National Endowment for the Humanities, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC., 1971.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Luong, W.: An identity building program for American-born children of Southeast Asian refugees, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA., 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, C.: Reshooting J. R., This Time on Home Territory, New York Times, 22nd July, A22A, 2012.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Asphaug, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Asphaug, 2007; Etienne and Rosindell, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Etienne and Rosindell, 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Zhang et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleBiogeosciences
ISSN (print)1726-4170
ISSN (online)1726-4189
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Earth-Surface Processes

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