How to format your references using the Biogeosciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biogeosciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kouwenhoven, L.: One photon seen by one electron, Nature, 403, 374–375, 2000.
A journal article with 2 authors
Fujiwara, A. and Takahashi, Y.: Manipulation of elementary charge in a silicon charge-coupled device, Nature, 410, 560–562, 2001.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jablonski, D., Roy, K., and Valentine, J. W.: Out of the tropics: evolutionary dynamics of the latitudinal diversity gradient, Science, 314, 102–106, 2006.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Spake, J. J., Sing, D. K., Evans, T. M., Oklopčić, A., Bourrier, V., Kreidberg, L., Rackham, B. V., Irwin, J., Ehrenreich, D., Wyttenbach, A., Wakeford, H. R., Zhou, Y., Chubb, K. L., Nikolov, N., Goyal, J. M., Henry, G. W., Williamson, M. H., Blumenthal, S., Anderson, D. R., Hellier, C., Charbonneau, D., Udry, S., and Madhusudhan, N.: Helium in the eroding atmosphere of an exoplanet, Nature, 557, 68–70, 2018.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Stenning, A., Smith, A., Rochovská, A., and Świa̧tek, D.: Domesticating Neo-Liberalism, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK, 2010.
An edited book
George, C., Whitehouse, D., and Duquenoy, P. (Eds.): eHealth: Legal, Ethical and Governance Challenges, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, XII, 396 p pp., 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Muñoz, P., Giner, P., and Pelechano, V.: Refining Interaction Designs through Simplicity, in: Ambient Intelligence: First International Joint Conference, AmI 2010, Malaga, Spain, November 10-12, 2010. Proceedings, edited by: Ruyter, B. de, Wichert, R., Keyson, D. V., Markopoulos, P., Streitz, N., Divitini, M., Georgantas, N., and Mana Gomez, A., Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 31–40, 2010.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biogeosciences.

Blog post
New Galaxy Discovered Close To Our Own:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Strategic Airlift: Further Efforts Can Be Taken to Extend Aircraft Service Life, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1994.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
LaPorte, M.: Depression and Rumination as a Predictor for Types of Substances Abused, Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana, Lafayette, LA, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Dorment, L. P.: Between Gigs, a TV Host Takes a Spin, New York Times, 18th August, MB2, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kouwenhoven, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Kouwenhoven, 2000; Fujiwara and Takahashi, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Fujiwara and Takahashi, 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Spake et al., 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleBiogeosciences
ISSN (print)1726-4170
ISSN (online)1726-4189
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Earth-Surface Processes

Other styles