How to format your references using the Biogeosciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biogeosciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wolpert, A. J.: The future of electronic data, Nature, 420, 17–18, 2002.
A journal article with 2 authors
Farrow, T. and Vedral, V.: Scale-estimation of quantum coherent energy transport in multiple-minima systems, Sci. Rep., 4, 5520, 2014.
A journal article with 3 authors
Polley, D. B., Kvasnák, E., and Frostig, R. D.: Naturalistic experience transforms sensory maps in the adult cortex of caged animals, Nature, 429, 67–71, 2004.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Dai, X., Savrasov, S. Y., Kotliar, G., Migliori, A., Ledbetter, H., and Abrahams, E.: Calculated phonon spectra of plutonium at high temperatures, Science, 300, 953–955, 2003.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gwynne, A.: Guide to Building Control, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK, 2013.
An edited book
Foss, C., Gray, J. W., and Whalen, Z. (Eds.): Disability in Comic Books and Graphic Narratives, Palgrave Macmillan UK, London, XVIII, 216 p pp., 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Tikhonov, A. and Klypin, A.: Properties of Voids in the Local Volume, in: Galaxies in the Local Volume, edited by: Jerjen, H. and Koribalski, B. S., Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 31–36, 2008.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biogeosciences.

Blog post
Drones Could Be Used To Fly Blood Samples To Remote Medical Centers:, last access: 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Aviation Safety Hazards, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1982.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
McLean, M. R.: Analyzing the relationship of geographic mobility and institutional prestige to career advancement of women in academic medicine pursuing midcareer-, senior-, or executive-level administrative positions: Implications for career advancement strategies, Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, Washington, DC, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, C.: An E.V. That Wraps Around a Wheelchair, New York Times, 21st April, AU2, 2013.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wolpert, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Wolpert, 2002; Farrow and Vedral, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Farrow and Vedral, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Dai et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleBiogeosciences
ISSN (print)1726-4170
ISSN (online)1726-4189
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Earth-Surface Processes

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