How to format your references using the Biogeosciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biogeosciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Edwards, R. L.: Climate change. Ice age rhythms, Science, 327, 790–791, 2010.
A journal article with 2 authors
Müller, U. K. and Lentink, D.: Physiology. Turning on a dime, Science, 306, 1899–1900, 2004.
A journal article with 3 authors
Schuler, B., Lipman, E. A., and Eaton, W. A.: Probing the free-energy surface for protein folding with single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy, Nature, 419, 743–747, 2002.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Torres-Rosell, J., De Piccoli, G., Cordon-Preciado, V., Farmer, S., Jarmuz, A., Machin, F., Pasero, P., Lisby, M., Haber, J. E., and Aragón, L.: Anaphase onset before complete DNA replication with intact checkpoint responses, Science, 315, 1411–1415, 2007.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fong, A. C. M. and Hui, S. C.: Multimedia Engineering, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, England, 2006.
An edited book
Olsen, O.-A. (Ed.): Endosperm: Developmental and Molecular Biology, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, X, 248 p. 17 illus., 7 illus. in color pp., 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
Chen, J. C. H. and Wu, H. A.: Aesthetic Creativity: Bridging Arts, Culture, and Education, in: Creative Arts in Education and Culture: Perspectives from Greater China, edited by: Leong, S. and Leung, B. W., Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 43–53, 2013.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biogeosciences.

Blog post
Watch Slime Molds Recreate The Intro To Game Of Thrones:, last access: 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Technology Development: Future Use of NASA’s Large Format Camera Is Uncertain, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1990.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Liyakath, R. A.: Reconfigurable Antenna and RF Circuits Using Multi-Layer Stretchable Conductors, Doctoral dissertation, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Steel, E.: On the Cusp Of a Capstone, New York Times, 24th July, B1, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Edwards, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Edwards, 2010; Müller and Lentink, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Müller and Lentink, 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Torres-Rosell et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleBiogeosciences
ISSN (print)1726-4170
ISSN (online)1726-4189
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Earth-Surface Processes

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