How to format your references using the Biofuels citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biofuels. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Vousden KH. Apoptosis. p53 and PUMA: a deadly duo. Science. 309(5741), 1685–1686 (2005).
A journal article with 2 authors
Palmer TN, Räisänen J. Quantifying the risk of extreme seasonal precipitation events in a changing climate. Nature. 415(6871), 512–514 (2002).
A journal article with 3 authors
Coaker G, Falick A, Staskawicz B. Activation of a phytopathogenic bacterial effector protein by a eukaryotic cyclophilin. Science. 308(5721), 548–550 (2005).
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Nielsen SG, Rehkämper M, Norman MD, Halliday AN, Harrison D. Thallium isotopic evidence for ferromanganese sediments in the mantle source of Hawaiian basalts. Nature. 439(7074), 314–317 (2006).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bobrow J, Fisher S, Mondragon-Gilmore J, et al. CliffsNotes® CSET®. Wiley Publishing, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Jamin C, van Caenegem W, editors. The Internationalisation of Legal Education. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Ploemacher RE. In Vivo Homing and Regeneration of Freshly Isolated and Cultured Murine Mesenchymal Stem Cells. In: Genetic Engineering of Mesenchymal Stem Cells. Nolta JA (Ed.), Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 81–92 (2006).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biofuels.

Blog post
Andrew E. Why Indonesia Can’t Stamp Out Fires That Have Cast A Haze Over South-East Asia [Internet]. IFLScience (2015). Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. NOAA Satellites. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sugg J. Small Graces: Mapping a Route of Beauty to the Heart of the World. (2012).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Stewart JB. Major Hurdle in Tax Overhaul: The Breaks in Trump’s Own Field. New York Times, A1 (2017).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBiofuels
ISSN (print)1759-7269
ISSN (online)1759-7277
ScopeRenewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
Waste Management and Disposal

Other styles