How to format your references using the Biofuels citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biofuels. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Yutzey KE. Regenerative biology: Neuregulin 1 makes heart muscle. Nature. 520(7548), 445–446 (2015).
A journal article with 2 authors
Marotzke J, Forster PM. Forcing, feedback and internal variability in global temperature trends. Nature. 517(7536), 565–570 (2015).
A journal article with 3 authors
Cai L, Friedman N, Xie XS. Stochastic protein expression in individual cells at the single molecule level. Nature. 440(7082), 358–362 (2006).
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Smittenberg RH, Eglinton TI, Schouten S, Damsté JSS. Ongoing buildup of refractory organic carbon in boreal soils during the Holocene. Science. 314(5803), 1283–1286 (2006).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Le Bodic G. Mobile Messaging Technologies and Services. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Borcsa M, Rober P, editors. Research Perspectives in Couple Therapy: Discursive Qualitative Methods. 1st ed. 2016. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Benson JR. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy and Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Breast Cancer Patients. In: Personalized Treatment of Breast Cancer. Toi M, Winer E, Benson J, Klimberg S (Eds.), Springer Japan, Tokyo, 49–62 (2016).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biofuels.

Blog post
Andrew D. Can We Harness Bacteria To Help Clean Up Future Oil Spills? [Internet]. IFLScience (2016). Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Federal Research and Development: Contributions to and Results of the Small Business Technology Transfer Program. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bain Butler D. How L2 legal writers use strategies for scholarly writing: A mixed methods study. (2010).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley B. Marriage, That Cozy Battlefield. New York Times, C1 (2017).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBiofuels
ISSN (print)1759-7269
ISSN (online)1759-7277
ScopeRenewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
Waste Management and Disposal

Other styles