How to format your references using the South African Theological Seminary citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for South African Theological Seminary (SATS). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kristan WB 2007. Neuroscience. A push-me pull-you neural design. Science (New York, N.Y.) 315(5810):339–340.
A journal article with 2 authors
Pasare C, Medzhitov R 2005. Control of B-cell responses by Toll-like receptors. Nature 438(7066):364–368.
A journal article with 3 authors
Vokrouhlický D, Nesvorný D, Bottke WF 2003. The vector alignments of asteroid spins by thermal torques. Nature 425(6954):147–151.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Youngblood B, Hale JS, Kissick HT, Ahn E, Xu X, Wieland A, Araki K, West EE, Ghoneim HE, Fan Y, et al. 2017. Effector CD8 T cells dedifferentiate into long-lived memory cells. Nature 552(7685):404–409.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Recho N 2012. Fracture Mechanics and Crack Growth. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Sloboda Z (ed.) 2005. Epidemiology of Drug Abuse. Boston, MA: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Warth RJ, Millett PJ 2015. Disorders of the Long Head of the Biceps Tendon. In Millett PJ (ed), Physical Examination of the Shoulder: An Evidence-Based Approach, 109–138. New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for South African Theological Seminary.

Blog post
Fang J 2015. LED Street Lights Thwart Moths’ Bat-Evading Tactics. Accessed from, 2018-10-30.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1968. Opportunity To Reduce Costs Substantially In Acquiring Teletypewriters For Use In The Advanced Record System Communications Network. No. B-162104. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Brown VA 2015. Silenced Voices That Cry in the Night: The Transformative Experience of Spouses of Wounded Warriors - Is it Transformative Learning? A Phenomenological Study. Doctoral dissertation, Washington, DC: George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon M 2012 (28 June). Catching a Running Partner at the Trials,With a Chance to Pass. New York Times, B11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kristan 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Pasare and Medzhitov 2005, Kristan 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Pasare and Medzhitov 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Youngblood et al. 2017)

About the journal

Full journal titleSouth African Theological Seminary
ISSN (print)1996-8167

Other styles