How to format your references using the South African Theological Seminary citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for South African Theological Seminary (SATS). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gavaghan H 2000. Emerging fields of basic chemistry in Europe. Nature 406(6797):811–812.
A journal article with 2 authors
Charness G, Fehr E 2015. ECONOMICS. From the lab to the real world. Science (New York, N.Y.) 350(6260):512–513.
A journal article with 3 authors
Vannucchi P, Remitti F, Bettelli G 2008. Geological record of fluid flow and seismogenesis along an erosive subducting plate boundary. Nature 451(7179):699–703.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Peng Y-P, Yuan X, Zhang J, Zhang L 2014. The effect of La₂O₃ in Tm3+-doped germanate-tellurite glasses for ~2 μm emission. Scientific reports 4:5256.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Duchon C, Hale R 2012. Time Series Analysis in Meteorology and Climatology. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Geddes CD (ed.) 2011. Reviews in Fluorescence 2009. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Bitansky N, Vaikuntanathan V 2016. Indistinguishability Obfuscation: From Approximate to Exact. In Kushilevitz E, Malkin T (eds), Theory of Cryptography: 13th International Conference, TCC 2016-A, Tel Aviv, Israel, January 10-13, 2016, Proceedings, Part I, 67–95. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for South African Theological Seminary.

Blog post
Davis J 2017. Parasite Infects Fish Eyes And Makes Them More Likely To Be Eaten By Birds. Accessed from, 2018-10-30.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1991. Working Comfortably With Video Display Terminals. No. 144505. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Murillo K 2010. An analysis of California community college budget policy key components in multicollege districts. Doctoral dissertation, Malibu, CA: Pepperdine University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Williams J 2017 (3 March). Carson McCullers at 100. New York Times, BR4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gavaghan 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Gavaghan 2000, Charness and Fehr 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Charness and Fehr 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Peng et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleSouth African Theological Seminary
ISSN (print)1996-8167

Other styles