How to format your references using the South African Theological Seminary citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for South African Theological Seminary (SATS). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Neelakantan S 2013. Psychology: Mind over myocardium. Nature 493(7434):S16-7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Pahlevan K, Morbidelli A 2015. Collisionless encounters and the origin of the lunar inclination. Nature 527(7579):492–494.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hayes D, Griffin GB, Engel GS 2013. Engineering coherence among excited states in synthetic heterodimer systems. Science (New York, N.Y.) 340(6139):1431–1434.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Grossman SR, Deato ME, Brignone C, Chan HM, Kung AL, Tagami H, Nakatani Y, Livingston DM 2003. Polyubiquitination of p53 by a ubiquitin ligase activity of p300. Science (New York, N.Y.) 300(5617):342–344.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Primak SL, Kontorovich V 2011. Wireless Multi-Antenna Channels. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Lassenius C, Smolander K (eds) 2014. Software Business. Towards Continuous Value Delivery: 5th International Conference, ICSOB 2014, Paphos, Cyprus, June 16-18, 2014. Proceedings. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Chakrabarty S 2007. Do Social Labeling NGOs Have Any Influence on Child Labor? In Grote U, Basu AK, Chau NH (eds), New Frontiers in Environmental and Social Labeling, 59–82. Heidelberg: Physica-Verlag HD.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for South African Theological Seminary.

Blog post
Andrew E 2015. How To Argue With Anti-Vaxxers, According To Science. Accessed from, 2018-10-30.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1980. Continued Use of Costly, Outmoded Computers in Federal Agencies Can Be Avoided. No. AFMD-81-9. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Naqvi SZ 2017. Around the world in 15 bites: Applied perspectives on learning about food. Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard M 2013 (19 September). A Playwright’s Home, an Actor’s Muse. New York Times, E11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Neelakantan 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Neelakantan 2013, Pahlevan and Morbidelli 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Pahlevan and Morbidelli 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Grossman et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleSouth African Theological Seminary
ISSN (print)1996-8167

Other styles