How to format your references using the South African Theological Seminary citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for South African Theological Seminary (SATS). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Noonan D 2014. Language: Lost in translation. Nature 508(7494):S4-5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Freiwald WA, Tsao DY 2010. Functional compartmentalization and viewpoint generalization within the macaque face-processing system. Science (New York, N.Y.) 330(6005):845–851.
A journal article with 3 authors
Taneike M, Abe F, Sawada K 2003. Creep-strengthening of steel at high temperatures using nano-sized carbonitride dispersions. Nature 424(6946):294–296.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Zhang J, Wang Z, Niu T, Wang S, Li Z, Chen W 2014. Elementary process for CVD graphene on Cu(110): size-selective carbon clusters. Scientific reports 4:4431.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ramirez J 2015. Accounting for Derivatives. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Sansò F, Sideris MG (eds) 2013. Geoid Determination: Theory and Methods. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Oh S-C, Hildreth AJ 2016. Energy Decision-Making 2: Demand Response Option Contract Decision Based on Stochastic Programming. In Hildreth AJ (ed), Analytics for Smart Energy Management: Tools and Applications for Sustainable Manufacturing, 109–135. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for South African Theological Seminary.

Blog post
Andrew E 2015. First Colour Images Of Ceres Revealed As Dawn Approaches. Accessed from, 2018-10-30.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1994. Electronic Surveillance: Technologies Continue to Pose Challenges. No. T-AIMD-94-173. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Piper MH 2017. A Study of the Effectiveness of Alternative Schools through an Examination of Graduation Rates, School Climate, Student Motivation, and Academic Rigor. Doctoral dissertation, St. Charles, MO: Lindenwood University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L 2007 (1 March). Court Hears Arguments Linking Right to Sue and Spending on Religion. New York Times, A14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Noonan 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Freiwald and Tsao 2010, Noonan 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Freiwald and Tsao 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Zhang et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleSouth African Theological Seminary
ISSN (print)1996-8167

Other styles