How to format your references using the South African Theological Seminary citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for South African Theological Seminary (SATS). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hejnol A 2014. Evolutionary biology: Excitation over jelly nerves. Nature 510(7503):38–39.
A journal article with 2 authors
Frede J, Jones PH 2013. Development. Permission to proliferate. Science (New York, N.Y.) 342(6163):1183–1184.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kasting JF, Catling DC, Zahnle K 2012. Atmospheric oxygenation and volcanism. Nature 487(7408):E1; discussion E2.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Okubo Y, Mera T, Wang L, Faustman DL 2013. Homogeneous expansion of human T-regulatory cells via tumor necrosis factor receptor 2. Scientific reports 3:3153.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Graham L 2010. Complying with Sarbanes-Oxley Section 404. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Hull R, Parisi J, Osgood RM, Warlimont H, Liu G, Jacquier B (eds) 2005. Spectroscopic Properties of Rare Earths in Optical Materials. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Cesare S, Xiang Y 2012. Static Analysis of Binaries. In Xiang Y (ed), Software Similarity and Classification, 41–49. London: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for South African Theological Seminary.

Blog post
Andrew E 2014. Incredible Video Shows Volcanic Eruption in Papua New Guinea. Accessed from, 2018-10-30.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1992. Intelligence Programs: New RC-135 Aircraft Engines Can Reduce Cost and Improve Performance. No. NSIAD-92-305. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Munchel BF 2015. Exploratory Study of Counseling Professionals’ Attitudes Toward Distance Clinical Supervision. Doctoral dissertation, Tampa, FL: University of South Florida.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Arango T 2017 (13 June). Food Poisoning Sickens Hundreds of Iraqis at U.N.-Run Camp. New York Times, A9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hejnol 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Frede and Jones 2013, Hejnol 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Frede and Jones 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Okubo et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleSouth African Theological Seminary
ISSN (print)1996-8167

Other styles