How to format your references using the South African Theological Seminary citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for South African Theological Seminary (SATS). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Edwards EA 2014. Microbiology. Breathing the unbreathable. Science (New York, N.Y.) 346(6208):424–425.
A journal article with 2 authors
le Noble F, le Noble J 2014. Bone biology: Vessels of rejuvenation. Nature 507(7492):313–314.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lykke-Andersen J, Shu MD, Steitz JA 2001. Communication of the position of exon-exon junctions to the mRNA surveillance machinery by the protein RNPS1. Science (New York, N.Y.) 293(5536):1836–1839.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Thiebaut de Schotten M, Urbanski M, Duffau H, Volle E, Lévy R, Dubois B, Bartolomeo P 2005. Direct evidence for a parietal-frontal pathway subserving spatial awareness in humans. Science (New York, N.Y.) 309(5744):2226–2228.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Reiman J 2012. As Free and as Just as Possible. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Gorgulho A 2013. Intelligent Financial Portfolio Composition based on Evolutionary Computation Strategies. Edited by RFMF Neves and NCG Horta. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Boundy-Mills K 2006. Methods for Investigating Yeast Biodiversity. In Péter G, Rosa C (eds), Biodiversity and Ecophysiology of Yeasts, 67–100. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for South African Theological Seminary.

Blog post
Hale T 2017. Strange Sighting Of Creepy Turkeys Forming A Marching Circle Around A Dead Cat. 2018-10-30.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1989. Highway Trust Fund: Condition and Outlook for the Highway Account. No. RCED-89-136. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rivera A 2010. A post analysis of an advanced access appointment model. Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rothenberg B 2017 (13 January). Federer Is Seeded 17th but Gets a Friendly Draw. New York Times, B11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Edwards 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Edwards 2014, le Noble and le Noble 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (le Noble and le Noble 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Thiebaut de Schotten et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleSouth African Theological Seminary
ISSN (print)1996-8167

Other styles