How to format your references using the Biodegradation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biodegradation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wilczek F (2015) Particle physics: A weighty mass difference. Nature 520:303–304
A journal article with 2 authors
Kropman MF, Bakker HJ (2001) Dynamics of water molecules in aqueous solvation shells. Science 291:2118–2120
A journal article with 3 authors
Keller KE, Tan IS, Lee Y-S (2012) SAICAR stimulates pyruvate kinase isoform M2 and promotes cancer cell survival in glucose-limited conditions. Science 338:1069–1072
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Zhang L, Ding X, Cui J, et al (2011) Cysteine methylation disrupts ubiquitin-chain sensing in NF-κB activation. Nature 481:204–208

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Todinov MT (2005) Reliability and Risk Models. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Thaler E, Kennedy DW (eds) (2008) Rhinosinusitis: A Guide for Diagnosis and Management. Springer, New York, NY
A chapter in an edited book
Gao Z-K, Jin N-D, Wang W-X (2014) Nonlinear Dynamics in Fluid Dynamic Complex Network. In: Jin N-D, Wang W-X (eds) Nonlinear Analysis of Gas-Water/Oil-Water Two-Phase Flow in Complex Networks. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 35–46

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biodegradation.

Blog post
Davis J (2015) Scientists Uncover The Earliest Known Animal To Have Walked Upright On All Fours. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1984) Secondary Market Activities of the Student Loan Marketing Association. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Faye C (2017) Dust. Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Dudiyeva F, as Told to (2005) Three Days and Forever. New York Times 662

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wilczek 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Kropman and Bakker 2001; Wilczek 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kropman and Bakker 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Zhang et al. 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titleBiodegradation
ISSN (print)0923-9820
ISSN (online)1572-9729
Environmental Chemistry
Environmental Engineering

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