How to format your references using the Biodegradation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biodegradation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Tiedemann MW (2000) The song of the Neanderthal. Nature 404:127
A journal article with 2 authors
Liang BA, Mackey T (2010) Health care policy. Reforming off-label promotion to enhance orphan disease treatment. Science 327:273–274
A journal article with 3 authors
Hoffman BD, Grashoff C, Schwartz MA (2011) Dynamic molecular processes mediate cellular mechanotransduction. Nature 475:316–323
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Barker N, Ridgway RA, van Es JH, et al (2009) Crypt stem cells as the cells-of-origin of intestinal cancer. Nature 457:608–611

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ballast DK (2010) Interior Detailing. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Buzug TM, Borgert J (eds) (2012) Magnetic Particle Imaging: A Novel SPIO Nanoparticle Imaging Technique. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Zhang H, Li Y (2011) Jordan Triple Multiplicative Maps on the Symmetric Matrices. In: Gong Z, Luo X, Chen J, et al. (eds) Web Information Systems and Mining: International Conference, WISM 2011, Taiyuan, China, September 24-25, 2011, Proceedings, Part I. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 27–34

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biodegradation.

Blog post
Luntz S (2014) Most Distant Stars In The Milky Way Identified. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2006) Information Technology: Immigration and Customs Enforcement Is Beginning to Address Infrastructure Modernization Program Weaknesses but Key Improvements Still Needed. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Green SW (2015) The influence of satisfaction among African American males on community college choices. Doctoral dissertation, Mississippi State University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L (2007) On the Wrong Side of 5 to 4, Liberals Talk Tactics. New York Times WK3

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Tiedemann 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Tiedemann 2000; Liang and Mackey 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Liang and Mackey 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Barker et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleBiodegradation
ISSN (print)0923-9820
ISSN (online)1572-9729
Environmental Chemistry
Environmental Engineering

Other styles