How to format your references using the Biodegradation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biodegradation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Moskovits M (2011) Applied physics. Hot electrons cross boundaries. Science 332:676–677
A journal article with 2 authors
Gunn PP, Joiner SD (2009) Certificates should be strengthened. Science 323:1289–90; author reply 1298-90
A journal article with 3 authors
Kawase H, Okata Y, Ito K (2013) Role of huge geometric circular structures in the reproduction of a marine pufferfish. Sci Rep 3:2106
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Clarkson JR, Baquero E, Shubert VA, et al (2005) Laser-initiated shuttling of a water molecule between H-bonding sites. Science 307:1443–1446

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tue NV, Reichel M, Fischer M (2016) Berechnung und Bemessung von Betonbrücken. Wilhelm Ernst & Sohn, Verlag für Architektur und technische Wissenschaften GmbH & Co. KG, Berlin, Germany
An edited book
Lookman T, Alexander FJ, Rajan K (eds) (2016) Information Science for Materials Discovery and Design, 1st ed. 2016. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Gorlatch S, Alt M (2006) Grid Programming with Java, RMI, and Skeletons. In: Cunha JC, Rana OF (eds) Grid Computing: Software Environments and Tools. Springer, London, pp 99–125

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biodegradation.

Blog post
Fang J (2015) Million-Year-Old Monkey Fossil Discovered In Underwater Cave. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1992) Amtrak Training: Improvements Needed for Employees Who Inspect and Maintain Rail Equipment. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Desam JR (2017) Effective Nodal Placement in Overlay Networks Using Complexity Theory. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G (2012) Far From London, Seeing the Big Picture. New York Times B17

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Moskovits 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Gunn and Joiner 2009; Moskovits 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gunn and Joiner 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Clarkson et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleBiodegradation
ISSN (print)0923-9820
ISSN (online)1572-9729
Environmental Chemistry
Environmental Engineering

Other styles