How to format your references using the Biodegradation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biodegradation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik P (2004) Ghosts in the machine. Nature 427:867
A journal article with 2 authors
Malin MC, Edgett KS (2003) Evidence for persistent flow and aqueous sedimentation on early Mars. Science 302:1931–1934
A journal article with 3 authors
Fasel R, Parschau M, Ernst K-H (2006) Amplification of chirality in two-dimensional enantiomorphous lattices. Nature 439:449–452
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Nakamura T, Noguchi T, Tanaka M, et al (2011) Itokawa dust particles: a direct link between S-type asteroids and ordinary chondrites. Science 333:1113–1116

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Berg MC (2000) The Fourier-Analytic Proof of Quadratic Reciprocity. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Gao H, Lim L, Wang W, et al (eds) (2012) Web-Age Information Management: 13th International Conference, WAIM 2012, Harbin, China, August 18-20, 2012. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Braverman M (2013) Noise versus Computational Intractability in Dynamics. In: Bonizzoni P, Brattka V, Löwe B (eds) The Nature of Computation. Logic, Algorithms, Applications: 9th Conference on Computability in Europe, CiE 2013, Milan, Italy, July 1-5, 2013. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 32–32

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biodegradation.

Blog post
Hale T (2016) This Desert Lizard Uses Its Skin To Drink Water From Sand. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2015) GPS: Actions Needed to Address Ground System Development Problems and User Equipment Production Readiness. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chitrampalam P (2009) Biological control of lettuce drop caused by Sclerotinia spp. using Coniothyrium minitans and elucidation of biochemical interactions during mycoparasitism. Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Poniewozik J (2017) Clawing Her Way Back to Normal. New York Times C1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Malin and Edgett 2003; Smaglik 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Malin and Edgett 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Nakamura et al. 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titleBiodegradation
ISSN (print)0923-9820
ISSN (online)1572-9729
Environmental Chemistry
Environmental Engineering

Other styles