How to format your references using the Biodegradation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biodegradation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dietl GP (2016) Ecology: Different worlds. Nature 529:29–30
A journal article with 2 authors
Leonhardt U, Tyc T (2009) Broadband invisibility by non-Euclidean cloaking. Science 323:110–112
A journal article with 3 authors
Tao C, Cullen WG, Williams ED (2010) Visualizing the electron scattering force in nanostructures. Science 328:736–740
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Janssen BJC, Read RJ, Brünger AT, Gros P (2007) Crystallography: crystallographic evidence for deviating C3b structure. Nature 448:E1-2; discussion E2-3

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chakrabarty P (2012) A Guide to Academia. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK
An edited book
Garcia-Alfaro J, Lioudakis G, Cuppens-Boulahia N, et al (eds) (2014) Data Privacy Management and Autonomous Spontaneous Security: 8th International Workshop, DPM 2013, and 6th International Workshop, SETOP 2013, Egham, UK, September 12-13, 2013, Revised Selected Papers. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Alnemr R, Cayirci E, Corte LD, et al (2016) A Data Protection Impact Assessment Methodology for Cloud. In: Berendt B, Engel T, Ikonomou D, et al. (eds) Privacy Technologies and Policy: Third Annual Privacy Forum, APF 2015, Luxembourg, Luxembourg, October 7-8, 2015, Revised Selected Papers. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 60–92

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biodegradation.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Boeing Patents A Design For A Drone That Converts Into A Submarine. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2015) Post-9/11 GI Bill: Additional Actions Needed to Help Reduce Overpayments and Increase Collections. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Alameddine A (2013) Perceptions of executives from seven selected companies of the use of social media in marketing practices. Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly DA (2007) Take Me to Starbucks if You Can’t Amuse Me. New York Times H10

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Dietl 2016).
This sentence cites two references (Leonhardt and Tyc 2009; Dietl 2016).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Leonhardt and Tyc 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Janssen et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleBiodegradation
ISSN (print)0923-9820
ISSN (online)1572-9729
Environmental Chemistry
Environmental Engineering

Other styles