How to format your references using the Big Data and Cognitive Computing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Big Data and Cognitive Computing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Horton, B. Bioengineering programmes rise to meet the challenge of a young science. Nature 2000, 403, 463–465.
A journal article with 2 authors
Müller, F.-J.; Loring, J.F. Network biology: A compass for stem-cell differentiation. Nature 2014, 513, 498–499.
A journal article with 3 authors
Stott, P.A.; Stone, D.A.; Allen, M.R. Human contribution to the European heatwave of 2003. Nature 2004, 432, 610–614.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Mizuguchi, S.; Uyama, T.; Kitagawa, H.; Nomura, K.H.; Dejima, K.; Gengyo-Ando, K.; Mitani, S.; Sugahara, K.; Nomura, K. Chondroitin proteoglycans are involved in cell division of Caenorhabditis elegans. Nature 2003, 423, 443–448.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lehto, J.; Hou, X. Chemistry and Analysis of Radionuclides; Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA: Weinheim, Germany, 2010; ISBN 9783527632770.
An edited book
Clément, G. Neuroscience in Space; Reschke, M.F., Ed.; 1st ed.; Springer: New York, NY, 2008; ISBN 9780387789491.
A chapter in an edited book
Liu, W.; Fu, B.; Liu, X.; Jin, Y. Numerical Calculation and Analysis of Influencing Factors on Waist Force of Armored Vehicle Driver. In Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Man–Machine–Environment System Engineering; Long, S., Dhillon, B.S., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2015; pp. 39–47 ISBN 9783662482230.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Big Data and Cognitive Computing.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Brazilian Wasp Venom Kills Cancer Cells, But Not Healthy Cells (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office District of Columbia: Performance Report Shows Continued Progress; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2003;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Britigan, D.H. Health information sources and health literacy levels of Latinos in a midwestern tri -state area. Doctoral dissertation, University of Cincinnati: Cincinnati, OH, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hubbard, B. Syrian Forces Capture Refugee Camp, Tightening Siege of Rebels in Aleppo. New York Times 2016, A14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBig Data and Cognitive Computing
AbbreviationBig Data Cogn. Comput.
ISSN (online)2504-2289

Other styles