How to format your references using the Big Data and Cognitive Computing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Big Data and Cognitive Computing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dalton, R. France strives for sharper image. Nature 2007, 445, 699.
A journal article with 2 authors
Head, J.J.; Polly, P.D. Evolution of the snake body form reveals homoplasy in amniote Hox gene function. Nature 2015, 520, 86–89.
A journal article with 3 authors
Grenfell, B.T.; Bjørnstad, O.N.; Kappey, J. Travelling waves and spatial hierarchies in measles epidemics. Nature 2001, 414, 716–723.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Not, F.; Valentin, K.; Romari, K.; Lovejoy, C.; Massana, R.; Töbe, K.; Vaulot, D.; Medlin, L.K. Picobiliphytes: a marine picoplanktonic algal group with unknown affinities to other eukaryotes. Science 2007, 315, 253–255.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Knuth, E. Trading Between the Lines; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2011; ISBN 9781118531532.
An edited book
Evolutionary and Biologically Inspired Music, Sound, Art and Design: 5th International Conference, EvoMUSART 2016, Porto, Portugal, March 30 -- April 1, 2016, Proceedings; Johnson, C., Ciesielski, V., Correia, J., Machado, P., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; 1st ed. 2016.; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2016; Vol. 9596; ISBN 9783319310077.
A chapter in an edited book
Wilbanks, T.J.; Fernandez, S. Urban Systems As Place-Based Foci For Infrastructure Interactions. In Climate Change and Infrastructure, Urban Systems, and Vulnerabilities; Wilbanks, T.J., Fernandez, S., Eds.; Island Press/Center for Resource Economics: Washington, DC, 2014; pp. 41–54 ISBN 9781597264693.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Big Data and Cognitive Computing.

Blog post
Luntz, S. Craters From Double Asteroid Impact Identified Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Airline Competition: Industry Competitive and Financial Problems; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1992;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Igbojekwe, S.C. Development of Environmental Friendly Cement for Oil and Gas Well Application. Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana: Lafayette, LA, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L. Justices Say Law Bars Retaliation Over Bias Claims. New York Times 2008, A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBig Data and Cognitive Computing
AbbreviationBig Data Cogn. Comput.
ISSN (online)2504-2289

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