How to format your references using the Big Data and Cognitive Computing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Big Data and Cognitive Computing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wei, H. Fundamental Limits of “ankylography” Due to Dimensional Deficiency. Nature 2011, 480, E1.
A journal article with 2 authors
Allan, R.P.; Soden, B.J. Atmospheric Warming and the Amplification of Precipitation Extremes. Science 2008, 321, 1481–1484.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kim, C.; Xuong, N.-H.; Taylor, S.S. Crystal Structure of a Complex between the Catalytic and Regulatory (RIalpha) Subunits of PKA. Science 2005, 307, 690–696.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Song, J.; Chen, X.; Wang, M.; Xing, Y.; Zheng, Z.; Hu, S. Cardiac Endothelial Cell-Derived Exosomes Induce Specific Regulatory B Cells. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 7583.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Srivastava, S.P. Developments in Lubricant Technology; John Wiley & Sons, Inc: Hoboken, New Jersey, 2014; ISBN 9781118907948.
An edited book
Cancer Associated Viruses; Robertson, E.S., Ed.; Current Cancer Research; 1st ed.; Springer US: Boston, MA, 2012; ISBN 9781441999993.
A chapter in an edited book
Guex, J.; Galster, F.; Hammer, Ø. The UA Method and the UAgraph Program. In Discrete Biochronological Time Scales; Galster, F., Hammer, Ø., Eds.; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2016; pp. 27–50 ISBN 9783319213255.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Big Data and Cognitive Computing.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. This Is The First Biofluorescent Turtle Ever Found Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office TVA’s Computer Needs Are Valid and ADP Management Is Improving; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1982;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mayner, S.W. Transformational Leadership and Organizational Change during Agile and Devops Initiatives. Doctoral dissertation, Capella University: Minneapolis, MN, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rothenberg, B. Murray, on a High, Raises His Sights. New York Times 2016, B13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBig Data and Cognitive Computing
AbbreviationBig Data Cogn. Comput.
ISSN (online)2504-2289

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