How to format your references using the Big Data and Cognitive Computing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Big Data and Cognitive Computing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hill, W.G. Genetics. A Century of Corn Selection. Science 2005, 307, 683–684.
A journal article with 2 authors
Eaves, A.A.; Palmer, A.R. Reproduction: Widespread Cloning in Echinoderm Larvae. Nature 2003, 425, 146.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pryke, S.R.; Rollins, L.A.; Griffith, S.C. Females Use Multiple Mating and Genetically Loaded Sperm Competition to Target Compatible Genes. Science 2010, 329, 964–967.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Rey Benayas, J.M.; Newton, A.C.; Diaz, A.; Bullock, J.M. Enhancement of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services by Ecological Restoration: A Meta-Analysis. Science 2009, 325, 1121–1124.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
O’Hara, B.T.; Malisow, B. CCSP® (ISC) 2® Certified Cloud Security Professional Official Study Guide; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2017; ISBN 9781119419372.
An edited book
Environmental Chemistry for a Sustainable World: Volume 2: Remediation of Air and Water Pollution; Lichtfouse, E., Schwarzbauer, J., Robert, D., Eds.; Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht, 2012; ISBN 9789400724389.
A chapter in an edited book
Méndez-Cruz, C.-F.; Torres-Moreno, J.-M.; Medina-Urrea, A.; Sierra, G. Extrinsic Evaluation on Automatic Summarization Tasks: Testing Affixality Measurements for Statistical Word Stemming. In Advances in Computational Intelligence: 11th Mexican International Conference on Artificial Intelligence, MICAI 2012, San Luis Potosí, Mexico, October 27 – November 4, 2012. Revised Selected Papers, Part II; Batyrshin, I., Mendoza, M.G., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013; pp. 46–57 ISBN 9783642377976.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Big Data and Cognitive Computing.

Blog post
Andrew, D. Feed A Virus But Starve Bacteria? When You’re Sick, It May Really Matter Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Efforts of the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare and the Department of Labor to Develop and Issue Health Standards; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1977;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
McConnell, K.F. Inventing Pluralistic Education: Compulsory Schooling as Technique of Democratic Deliberation. Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University: Bloomington, IN, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. One More From The Heart. New York Times 2011, D1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBig Data and Cognitive Computing
AbbreviationBig Data Cogn. Comput.
ISSN (online)2504-2289

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