How to format your references using the Big Data and Cognitive Computing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Big Data and Cognitive Computing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, P. Salaries in the Balance. Nature 2009, 457, 750–751.
A journal article with 2 authors
Chiu, C.; Weliky, M. Neuroscience. Synaptic Modification by Vision. Science 2003, 300, 1890–1891.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chen, A.E.; Ginty, D.D.; Fan, C.-M. Protein Kinase A Signalling via CREB Controls Myogenesis Induced by Wnt Proteins. Nature 2005, 433, 317–322.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Izumi, Y.; Xu, L.; di Tomaso, E.; Fukumura, D.; Jain, R.K. Tumour Biology: Herceptin Acts as an Anti-Angiogenic Cocktail. Nature 2002, 416, 279–280.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dubuisson, S. Tracking with Particle Filter for High-Dimensional Observation and State Spaces; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2015; ISBN 9781119004868.
An edited book
Borderline Personality and Mood Disorders: Comorbidity and Controversy; Choi-Kain, L.W., Gunderson, J.G., Eds.; Springer: New York, NY, 2015; ISBN 9781493913138.
A chapter in an edited book
Toh, S.; Itano, T.; Satoh, K. Co-Supporting Cycle: Sustaining Mechanism of Large-Scale Structures and Near-Wall Structures in Channel Flow Turbulence. In IUTAM Symposium on Laminar-Turbulent Transition and Finite Amplitude Solutions; Mullin, T., Kerswell, R., Eds.; Fluid Mechanics and its Applications; Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht, 2005; pp. 71–83 ISBN 9781402040481.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Big Data and Cognitive Computing.

Blog post
Luntz, S. FDA Buries Evidence of Fraud Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Perkins Student Loans: Need for Better Controls Over Loans Recovered From Closed Schools; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1991;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hoefer, P.D. A David against Goliath: The American Veterans Committee’s Challenge to the American Legion in the 1950s. Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park: College Park, MD, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wilson, D.J.; Eligon, J. Rams’ Departure Is Another Blow to St. Louis Area, and a Chance to Shift Priorities. New York Times 2016, A14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBig Data and Cognitive Computing
AbbreviationBig Data Cogn. Comput.
ISSN (online)2504-2289

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