How to format your references using the Big Data and Cognitive Computing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Big Data and Cognitive Computing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bourzac, K. Medical Imaging: Removing the Blindfold. Nature 2013, 504, S10-2.
A journal article with 2 authors
Allen, M.R.; Frame, D.J. Atmosphere. Call off the Quest. Science 2007, 318, 582–583.
A journal article with 3 authors
Thammavongsa, V.; Missiakas, D.M.; Schneewind, O. Staphylococcus Aureus Degrades Neutrophil Extracellular Traps to Promote Immune Cell Death. Science 2013, 342, 863–866.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Zubir, N.A.; Yacou, C.; Motuzas, J.; Zhang, X.; Diniz da Costa, J.C. Structural and Functional Investigation of Graphene Oxide-Fe3O4 Nanocomposites for the Heterogeneous Fenton-like Reaction. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 4594.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fliszár, S. Atomic Charges, Bond Properties, and Molecular Energies; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2008; ISBN 9780470405918.
An edited book
Advancements in Automation, Robotics and Sensing: First International Conference, ICAARS 2016, Coimbatore, India, June 23 - 24, 2016, Revised Selected Papers; Vinod, B., Voyles, R., Vadakkepat, P., Sundaram, M., Sujatha, K.S., Brislin, J.J., Eds.; Communications in Computer and Information Science; Springer: Singapore, 2016; Vol. 627; ISBN 9789811028441.
A chapter in an edited book
Zhou, Y.; Qin, Y. Income Inequality of China’s Total Resident and the Factors Which Impact It. In Empirical Analysis on Income Inequality of Chinese Residents; Qin, Y., Ed.; Gu Shutang Academic Fund of Economics; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012; pp. 125–149 ISBN 9783642249518.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Big Data and Cognitive Computing.

Blog post
Andrews, R. This 110-Million-Year-Old Armored Dinosaur Was Turned To Stone By A Geological Medusa Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office ADP Planning: Allegations of Inadequate Procurements at the National Archives; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1988;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Doss, A. Trapped within the White Gaze: A DuBoisian Approach to Understanding the Existential Burden of Being a Black Man in America. Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University: Bloomington, IN, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Belson, K.; Medina, J.; Pérez-Peña, R. Sniper Inflicts ‘Total Chaos’ in Las Vegas; Police Seek a Motive as Death Toll Hits 59. New York Times 2017, A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBig Data and Cognitive Computing
AbbreviationBig Data Cogn. Comput.
ISSN (online)2504-2289

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