How to format your references using the Big Data Analytics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Big Data Analytics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Foster I. 2020 computing: a two-way street to science’s future. Nature. 2006;440:419.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Wood WB, Gentile JM. Education. Teaching in a research context. Science. 2003;302:1510.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Aizen MA, Sabatino M, Tylianakis JM. Specialization and rarity predict nonrandom loss of interactions from mutualist networks. Science. 2012;335:1486–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Fujioka K, Shibata A, Yokota T, Koda T, Nagasaka M, Yagi M, et al. Association of a vascular endothelial growth factor polymorphism with the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in Japanese premature newborns. Sci Rep. 2014;4:4459.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Balan V, Neagu M. Jet Single-Time Lagrange Geometry and Its Applications. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
1. Haines AJ. Enhanced Surface Imaging of Crustal Deformation: Obtaining Tectonic Force Fields Using GPS Data. 1st ed. 2015. Dimitrova LL, Wallace LM, Williams CA, editors. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Bustamante AL, Molina JM, Patricio MA. Multi-camera Control and Video Transmission Architecture for Distributed Systems. In: Molina JM, Corredera JRC, Pérez MFC, Ortega-García J, Barbolla AMB, editors. User-Centric Technologies and Applications: Proceedings of the CONTEXTS 2011 Workshop. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011. p. 37–45.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Big Data Analytics.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Astronomers Believe They’re Witnessing The Birth Of A New Planet. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Major Science and Technology Issues. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1981 Jan. Report No.: PAD-81-35.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Brown LT. Identifying potential co-repressors associated with dexamethasone-induced repression of the MUC5AC gene [Doctoral dissertation]. [Washington, DC]: George Washington University; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Rosenberg E. Denise Matthews, 57, Singer Known as Vanity. New York Times. 2016 Feb 17;B16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBig Data Analytics
AbbreviationBig Data Anal.
ISSN (online)2058-6345

Other styles