How to format your references using the Experimental Physiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Experimental Physiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Heritage J (2003). Plant sciences. Super sunflowers--stopping the rot? Science 300, 1243–1244.
A journal article with 2 authors
Scully KM & Rosenfeld MG (2002). Pituitary development: regulatory codes in mammalian organogenesis. Science 295, 2231–2235.
A journal article with 3 authors
Parker JD, Burkepile DE & Hay ME (2006). Opposing effects of native and exotic herbivores on plant invasions. Science 311, 1459–1461.
A journal article with 20 or more authors
Hesselbo SP, Grocke DR, Jenkyns HC, Bjerrum CJ, Farrimond P, Morgans Bell HS & Green OR (2000). Massive dissociation of gas hydrate during a Jurassic oceanic anoxic event. Nature 406, 392–395.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Guillaume P (2006). Music and Acoustics. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Cervesato I, Veith H & Voronkov A eds. (2008). Logic for Programming, Artificial Intelligence, and Reasoning: 15th International Conference, LPAR 2008, Doha, Qatar, November 22-27, 2008. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Yilbas BS, Al-Dweik AY, Al-Aqeeli N & Al-Qahtani HM (2014). Concluding Remarks. In Laser Pulse Heating of Surfaces and Thermal Stress Analysis, ed. Al-Dweik AY, Al-Aqeeli N & Al-Qahtani HM, Materials Forming, Machining and Tribology, pp. 167–175. Springer International Publishing, Heidelberg.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Experimental Physiology.

Blog post
Andrews R (2016). Hottest June Ever Recorded Breaks All Kinds Of Awful Climate Change Records. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2005). Digital Broadcast Television Transition: Estimated Cost of Supporting Set-Top Boxes to Help Advance the DTV Transition. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Pantallion AS (2015). A parallel comparison of views regarding student preparation for introductory college chemistry (Doctoral dissertation thesis). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Neuman W (2014). In Colombia, an Election May Turn on a Dirty War. New York TimesA12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Heritage, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Scully & Rosenfeld, 2002; Heritage, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Scully & Rosenfeld, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Hesselbo et al., 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleExperimental Physiology
AbbreviationExp. Physiol.
ISSN (print)0958-0670
ISSN (online)1469-445X

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