How to format your references using the Experimental Physiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Experimental Physiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Abbott A (2002). CERN collider project back on track. Nature 420, 721.
A journal article with 2 authors
Britt RD & Oyala PH (2014). Biochemistry. One step closer to O₂. Science 345, 736.
A journal article with 3 authors
O’Rahilly S, Barroso I & Wareham NJ (2005). Genetic factors in type 2 diabetes: the end of the beginning? Science 307, 370–373.
A journal article with 20 or more authors
Aillaud C et al. (2017). Vasohibins/SVBP are tubulin carboxypeptidases (TCPs) that regulate neuron differentiation. Science 358, 1448–1453.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Isobe K, Watanabe W & Itoh K (2013). Functional Imaging by Controlled Nonlinear Optical Phenomena. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Brem A & Viardot É eds. (2015). Adoption of Innovation: Balancing Internal and External Stakeholders in the Marketing of Innovation. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Durand G, Belacel N & Goutte C (2015). Evaluation of Expert-Based Q-Matrices Predictive Quality in Matrix Factorization Models. In Design for Teaching and Learning in a Networked World: 10th European Conference on Technology Enhanced Learning, EC-TEL 2015, Toledo, Spain, September 15-18, 2015, Proceedings, ed. Conole G, Klobučar T, Rensing C, Konert J & Lavoué E, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pp. 56–69. Springer International Publishing, Cham.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Experimental Physiology.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015). Tiny Worms Get Around Using Slug Guts And Poop. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1976). Analysis of Replacing Existing DOA Computer System. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gonzalez ER (2015). Technology and adiposity: Effects of television time, video or computer game time, and computer use on body fat among Latino youth (Doctoral dissertation thesis). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Ortved J (2017). Enter, Hermès, West Coast Style. New York TimesST14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Abbott, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Abbott, 2002; Britt & Oyala, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Britt & Oyala, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Aillaud et al., 2017)

About the journal

Full journal titleExperimental Physiology
AbbreviationExp. Physiol.
ISSN (print)0958-0670
ISSN (online)1469-445X

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