How to format your references using the Experimental Physiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Experimental Physiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Balibar S (2010). The enigma of supersolidity. Nature 464, 176–182.
A journal article with 2 authors
Keller GB & Hahnloser RHR (2009). Neural processing of auditory feedback during vocal practice in a songbird. Nature 457, 187–190.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ryckman JD, Jiao Y & Weiss SM (2013). Three-dimensional patterning and morphological control of porous nanomaterials by gray-scale direct imprinting. Sci Rep 3, 1502.
A journal article with 20 or more authors
Steger DJ, Haswell ES, Miller AL, Wente SR & O’Shea EK (2003). Regulation of chromatin remodeling by inositol polyphosphates. Science 299, 114–116.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Anderson D (2007). TKO Hiring! John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Schwab M ed. (2009). Encyclopedia of Cancer. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Bonfiglio S (2012). Fostering a Continuum of Care. In Impact Analysis of Solutions for Chronic Disease Prevention and Management: 10th International Conference on Smart Homes and Health Telematics, ICOST 2012, Artiminio, Italy, June 12-15, 2012. Proceedings, ed. Donnelly M, Paggetti C, Nugent C & Mokhtari M, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pp. 35–41. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Experimental Physiology.

Blog post
Luntz S (2017). Hawaiian Islands Were Losing Species Millions Of Years Before Humans Arrived. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1991). Airport Safety: New Radar That Will Help Prevent Accidents Is 4 Years Behind Schedule. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
DeHart WP (2008). The leader liminal sphere: A phenomenological inquiry (Doctoral dissertation thesis). Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Lee L (2009). Ducking In and Out. New York TimesST4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Balibar, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Keller & Hahnloser, 2009; Balibar, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Keller & Hahnloser, 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Steger et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleExperimental Physiology
AbbreviationExp. Physiol.
ISSN (print)0958-0670
ISSN (online)1469-445X

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