How to format your references using the Experimental Physiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Experimental Physiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gavaghan H (2000). Governments prime basic nanotech research, applied activity yet to soar. Nature 408, 619–620.
A journal article with 2 authors
Pearson BJ & Doe CQ (2003). Regulation of neuroblast competence in Drosophila. Nature 425, 624–628.
A journal article with 3 authors
Batista CAS, Larson RG & Kotov NA (2015). Nonadditivity of nanoparticle interactions. Science 350, 1242477.
A journal article with 20 or more authors
Hosoi T, Honda M, Oba T & Ozawa K (2013). ER stress upregulated PGE₂/IFNγ-induced IL-6 expression and down-regulated iNOS expression in glial cells. Sci Rep 3, 3388.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Damrosch D (2017). How to Read World Literature. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Malvey D (2014). mHealth: Transforming Healthcareed. Slovensky DJ. Springer US, Boston, MA.
A chapter in an edited book
David G (2005). Open Questions on the Mumford-Shah Functional. In Perspectives in Analysis: Essays in Honor of Lennart Carleson’s 75th Birthday, ed. Benedicks M, Jones PW, Smirnov S & Winckler B, Mathematical Physics Studies, pp. 37–49. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Experimental Physiology.

Blog post
Hale T (2016). Pouring Sulfuric Acid Onto Toilet Roll Is Oddly Satisfying. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1988). FAA Staffing: Improvements Needed in Estimating Air Traffic Controller Requirements. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ringler I (2008). Values satisfaction and participation in a community leadership program: A case study (Doctoral dissertation thesis). University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G (2011). Five Years Later, A Different Outcome. New York TimesB14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gavaghan, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Gavaghan, 2000; Pearson & Doe, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Pearson & Doe, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Hosoi et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleExperimental Physiology
AbbreviationExp. Physiol.
ISSN (print)0958-0670
ISSN (online)1469-445X

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