How to format your references using the Experimental Physiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Experimental Physiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Insley SJ (2000). Long-term vocal recognition in the northern fur seal. Nature 406, 404–405.
A journal article with 2 authors
Žutić I & Cernĕ J (2011). Physics. Chameleon magnets. Science 332, 1040–1041.
A journal article with 3 authors
Taggart AKP, Teng S-C & Zakian VA (2002). Est1p as a cell cycle-regulated activator of telomere-bound telomerase. Science 297, 1023–1026.
A journal article with 20 or more authors
Brañas-Garza P, Espín AM, Exadaktylos F & Herrmann B (2014). Fair and unfair punishers coexist in the Ultimatum Game. Sci Rep 4, 6025.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Malina M (2013). Delivering Sustainable Buildings. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Oxford.
An edited book
Bernkop-Schnürch A ed. (2009). Oral Delivery of Macromolecular Drugs: Barriers, Strategies and Future Trends. Springer US, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Campi L (2014). A Note on Market Completeness with American Put Options. In Inspired by Finance: The Musiela Festschrift, ed. Kabanov Y, Rutkowski M & Zariphopoulou T, pp. 73–82. Springer International Publishing, Cham.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Experimental Physiology.

Blog post
Davis J (2015). Scientists Make World’s First White Laser. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2006). Space Acquisitions: DOD Needs Additional Knowledge as it Embarks on a New Approach for Transformational Satellite Communications System. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lee S (2005). The Influence of Product Involvement and Fan Identification on Response to Team Sponsors’ Products (Doctoral dissertation thesis). Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shpigel B (2017). Obliviously, Wentz Fuels The Eagles’ Giddy Rise. New York TimesB7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Insley, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Insley, 2000; Žutić & Cernĕ, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Žutić & Cernĕ, 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Brañas-Garza et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleExperimental Physiology
AbbreviationExp. Physiol.
ISSN (print)0958-0670
ISSN (online)1469-445X

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