How to format your references using the Experimental Physiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Experimental Physiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Shaw JE (2014). Alejandro Zaffaroni (1923-2014). Nature 508, 187.
A journal article with 2 authors
Grant PR & Grant BR (2014). Evolutionary biology: speciation undone. Nature 507, 178–179.
A journal article with 3 authors
Shapiro JH, Venkatraman D & Wong FNC (2013). Ghost imaging without discord. Sci Rep 3, 1849.
A journal article with 20 or more authors
Kenward B, Weir AAS, Rutz C & Kacelnik A (2005). Behavioural ecology: tool manufacture by naive juvenile crows. Nature 433, 121.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Levene M (2010). An Introduction to Search Engines and Web Navigation. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Pascucci A (2009). Finanza Matematica: Teoria e problemi per modelli multiperiodalied. Runggaldier WJ. Springer, Milano.
A chapter in an edited book
Roskos K & Burstein K (2013). Print to Pixel: Foundations of an E-Book Instructional Model in Early Literacy. In Technology as a Support for Literacy Achievements for Children at Risk, ed. Shamir A & Korat O, pp. 47–57. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Experimental Physiology.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015). Have Researchers Finally Settled The Nature Vs Nurture Debate? IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1989). Compensatory Education: Aguilar v. Felton Decision’s Continuing Impact on Chapter 1 Program. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bradford J (2012). Commutative endomorphism rings of simple abelian varieties over finite fields (Doctoral dissertation thesis). University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Mazzetti M, Goldman A, Schmidt MS & Apuzzo M (2017). Killing C.I.A. Informants, China Stifled U.S. Spying. New York TimesA1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Shaw, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Grant & Grant, 2014; Shaw, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Grant & Grant, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Kenward et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleExperimental Physiology
AbbreviationExp. Physiol.
ISSN (print)0958-0670
ISSN (online)1469-445X

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