How to format your references using the Experimental Physiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Experimental Physiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Shukla J (2007). Atmosphere. Monsoon mysteries. Science 318, 204–205.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gao X & Jiang L (2004). Biophysics: water-repellent legs of water striders. Nature 432, 36.
A journal article with 3 authors
Nahm H-H, Park CH & Kim Y-S (2014). Bistability of hydrogen in ZnO: origin of doping limit and persistent photoconductivity. Sci Rep 4, 4124.
A journal article with 20 or more authors
Gallo EM, Winslow MM, Canté-Barrett K, Radermacher AN, Ho L, McGinnis L, Iritani B, Neilson JR & Crabtree GR (2007). Calcineurin sets the bandwidth for discrimination of signals during thymocyte development. Nature 450, 731–735.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wolbarst AB, Capasso P & Wyant AR (2013). Medical Imaging. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Atweh B, Graven M, Secada W & Valero P eds. (2011). Mapping Equity and Quality in Mathematics Education. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Melling L (2016). Peatland in Malaysia. In Tropical Peatland Ecosystems, ed. Osaki M & Tsuji N, pp. 59–73. Springer Japan, Tokyo.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Experimental Physiology.

Blog post
Andrew D (2016). Questions You Should Ask Yourself Before Getting Cryogenically Frozen. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1998). FCC: Implementation of Competitive Bidding for Commercial Broadcast and Instructional Television Fixed Service Licenses. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chaves JS (2009). Novel approach for the creation of thin films and interconnects using single walled carbon nanotubes inkjet technology and bacteria (Doctoral dissertation thesis). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly M (1993). A Magazine Will Tell All About Bubba. New York TimesA20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Shukla, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Shukla, 2007, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gao & Jiang, 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Gallo et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleExperimental Physiology
AbbreviationExp. Physiol.
ISSN (print)0958-0670
ISSN (online)1469-445X

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