How to format your references using the Clinical Infectious Diseases citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Infectious Diseases. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Venema L. Fathers of electronic revolution are rewarded. Nature 2000; 407:662.
A journal article with 2 authors
Young R, Gill JJ. MICROBIOLOGY. Phage therapy redux--What is to be done? Science 2015; 350:1163–1164.
A journal article with 3 authors
Murray B, Huntress WT Jr, Friedman LD. Mars outposts: a planetary society approach to exploration. Nature 2001; 412:254–255.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Boitano AE, Wang J, Romeo R, et al. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor antagonists promote the expansion of human hematopoietic stem cells. Science 2010; 329:1345–1348.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Blackwood N. Advanced Excel Reporting for Management Accountants. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2014.
An edited book
Bennemann KH, Ketterson JB, editors. Superconductivity: Conventional and Unconventional Superconductors. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Bangerter E, Camenisch J, Lysyanskaya A. A Cryptographic Framework for the Controlled Release of Certified Data. In: Christianson B, Crispo B, Malcolm JA, Roe M, eds. Security Protocols: 12th International Workshop, Cambridge, UK, April 26-28, 2004. Revised Selected Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2006: 20–42.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Infectious Diseases.

Blog post
Andrew E. These Trees Could Protect Against Wildfires. IFLScience, 2015. Available at: Accessed 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Surface Transportation: Competitive Grant Programs Could Benefit from Increased Performance Focus and Better Documentation of Key Decisions. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2011.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lorentz J. The effect of requirements prioritization on avionics system conceptual design. 2009;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt) SK. World Briefing | Europe: Russia: Journalist’s Appeal Turned Down. New York Times. 2002; :A11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Infectious Diseases
AbbreviationClin. Infect. Dis.
ISSN (print)1058-4838
ISSN (online)1537-6591
ScopeInfectious Diseases
Microbiology (medical)

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