How to format your references using the Clinical Infectious Diseases citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Infectious Diseases. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Murray TH. Genetics. Stirring the simmering ‘designer baby’ pot. Science 2014; 343:1208–1210.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Taylor MS, Hellberg ME. Genetic evidence for local retention of pelagic larvae in a Caribbean reef fish. Science 2003; 299:107–109.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Simmons SL, Bazylinski DA, Edwards KJ. South-seeking magnetotactic bacteria in the Northern Hemisphere. Science 2006; 311:371–374.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Fitzpatrick MJ, Feder E, Rowe L, Sokolowski MB. Maintaining a behaviour polymorphism by frequency-dependent selection on a single gene. Nature 2007; 447:210–212.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Mallée R, Fuchs W, Eligehausen R. Design of Fastenings for Use in Concrete - the CEN/TS 1992-4 Provisions. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 2013.
An edited book
1.
Tonon G, editor. Indicators of Quality of Life in Latin America. 1st ed. 2016. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Lazenby AJ. Diverticular Colitis. In: Chhieng DC, Siegal GP, eds. Updates in Diagnostic Pathology. Boston, MA: Springer US, 2005: 30–34.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Infectious Diseases.

Blog post
1.
Luntz S. Eclipsing Binary Could Be A Supernova Model. IFLScience, 2015. Available at: https://www.iflscience.com/space/eclipsing-binary-way-becoming-supernova/. Accessed 30 October 2018.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Tax Administration: Achieving Business and Technical Goals In Tax Systems Modernization. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1993.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Bhavsar KS. Application of wavelet on quasi-periodic physiologic signals. 2017;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Yablonsky L. Power Nap. New York Times. 2010; :ST3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Infectious Diseases
AbbreviationClin. Infect. Dis.
ISSN (print)1058-4838
ISSN (online)1537-6591
ScopeInfectious Diseases
Microbiology (medical)

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