How to format your references using the Clinical Infectious Diseases citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Infectious Diseases. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dando M. Biologists napping while work militarized. Nature 2009; 460:950–951.
A journal article with 2 authors
Levin LA, Le Bris N. The deep ocean under climate change. Science 2015; 350:766–768.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bali E, Audétat A, Keppler H. Water and hydrogen are immiscible in Earth’s mantle. Nature 2013; 495:220–222.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Seltzer GO, Rodbell DT, Baker PA, et al. Early warming of tropical South America at the last glacial-interglacial transition. Science 2002; 296:1685–1686.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Natsuno T. i-Mode Strategy. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2005.
An edited book
Atienza Alonso D. Dynamic Memory Management for Embedded Systems. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Park SK. Role of Free Radicals in Hearing Loss due to Heavy Metals. In: Miller J, Le Prell CG, Rybak L, eds. Free Radicals in ENT Pathology. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2015: 93–109.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Infectious Diseases.

Blog post
Davis J. No, The Viral Video Of The Polar Bear With The Dog Is Not ‘Cute’, It’s Dangerous. IFLScience, 2016. Available at: Accessed 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Opportunities for Improvement in the Administration of Technical Training Activities. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1973.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zhao J. Contextual Differential Item Functioning: Examining the Validity of Teaching Self-Efficacy Instruments Using Hierarchical Generalized Linear Modeling. 2012;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow L. Two Legislative Seats To Be Filled on March 27. New York Times. 2007; :14LI2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Infectious Diseases
AbbreviationClin. Infect. Dis.
ISSN (print)1058-4838
ISSN (online)1537-6591
ScopeInfectious Diseases
Microbiology (medical)

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