How to format your references using the Clinical Infectious Diseases citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Infectious Diseases. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Coscia M. Average is boring: how similarity kills a meme’s success. Sci Rep 2014; 4:6477.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Lee J-H, Paull TT. ATM activation by DNA double-strand breaks through the Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 complex. Science 2005; 308:551–554.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Qi Y, Dolgushev M, Zhang Z. Dynamics of semiflexible recursive small-world polymer networks. Sci Rep 2014; 4:7576.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Kühner D, Stahl M, Demircioglu DD, Bertsche U. From cells to muropeptide structures in 24 h: peptidoglycan mapping by UPLC-MS. Sci Rep 2014; 4:7494.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Burghardt G, Walls B. Managed Futures for Institutional Investors. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2011.
An edited book
1.
Awrejcewicz J. Chaos in Structural Mechanics. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Fuller CE, Narendra S, Tolicica I. Ependymal Tumors. In: Adesina AM, Tihan T, Fuller CE, Poussaint TY, eds. Atlas of Pediatric Brain Tumors. New York, NY: Springer, 2010: 47–59.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Infectious Diseases.

Blog post
1.
Davis J. Sperm Whale Cultures Found To Completely Change In The Waters Of The Galápagos. IFLScience, 2016. Available at: https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/sperm-whale-cultures-found-to-completely-change-in-the-waters-of-the-galpagos/. Accessed 30 October 2018.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Higher Education and Disability: Education Needs a Coordinated Approach to Improve Its Assistance to Schools in Supporting Students. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2009.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Esmaili G. Application of Advanced Power Electronics in Renewable Energy Sources and Hybrid Generating Systems. 2006;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Kanter J, Tsang A. Intel Fine In Europe Gets Review. New York Times. 2017; :B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Infectious Diseases
AbbreviationClin. Infect. Dis.
ISSN (print)1058-4838
ISSN (online)1537-6591
ScopeInfectious Diseases
Microbiology (medical)

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