How to format your references using the Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Blake D (2004) Biodiscovery--from reef to outback. Nature 429:15–17
A journal article with 2 authors
Thursby JG, Thursby MC (2003) Intellectual property. University licensing and the Bayh-Dole Act. Science 301:1052
A journal article with 3 authors
Nimmerjahn A, Kirchhoff F, Helmchen F (2005) Resting microglial cells are highly dynamic surveillants of brain parenchyma in vivo. Science 308:1314–1318
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Terada K, Anand M, Sokol AK, et al (2007) Cryptomare magmatism 4.35 Gyr ago recorded in lunar meteorite Kalahari 009. Nature 450:849–852

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hamdan M, Righetti PG (2005) Proteomics Today. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Mjølsnes SF, Mauw S, Katsikas SK (eds) (2008) Public Key Infrastructure: 5th European PKI Workshop: Theory and Practice, EuroPKI 2008 Trondheim, Norway, June 16-17, 2008 Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Hazim Chan N, Hizaddin HF, Anantharaj R (2015) Separation of Pyrrole from Isododecane Using Imidazolium and Pyridinium Based Ionic Liquid at 298.15 K: Experiment and COSMO-RS Prediction. In: Hashim MA (ed) ICGSCE 2014: Proceedings of the International Conference on Global Sustainability and Chemical Engineering. Springer, Singapore, pp 25–32

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology.

Blog post
Fang J (2015) New Coating For Nets Kills Insecticide-Resistant Mosquitoes. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2001) FTS 2001 Implementation Issues. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ilag GM (2014) An examination of the entity participants’ collaborative partnerships within the United Nations Global Compact. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly S (2000) Books in Brief: Fiction. New York Times 721

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Blake 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Thursby and Thursby 2003; Blake 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Thursby and Thursby 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Terada et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleBehavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
AbbreviationBehav. Ecol. Sociobiol.
ISSN (print)0340-5443
ISSN (online)1432-0762
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

Other styles