How to format your references using the Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Winklhofer M (2012) Physiology. An avian magnetometer. Science 336:991–992
A journal article with 2 authors
Jakse N, Pasturel A (2013) Liquid Aluminum: atomic diffusion and viscosity from ab initio molecular dynamics. Sci Rep 3:3135
A journal article with 3 authors
Maharana C, Sharma KP, Sharma SK (2013) Feedback mechanism in depolarization-induced sustained activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase in the hippocampus. Sci Rep 3:1103
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Coelho AS, Barbosa FAS, Cassemiro KN, et al (2009) Three-color entanglement. Science 326:823–826

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Burgess M (2005) Analytical Network and System Administration. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Chakraborty S (2014) Computational Musicology in Hindustani Music. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Battaglia E (2009) Fisiopatologia dell’annegamento. In: Baghin A (ed) Annegamento Soccorso tecnico e sanitario. Springer, Milano, pp 59–63

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology.

Blog post
Davis J (2015) Racism And Sexism Could Be “Unlearnt” During Sleep. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1977) Guide for Evaluating Automated Systems. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ortiz-Quiusky S (2015) Substance abuse, smoking, and depression among military veterans. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Buckley C (2013) In the Shadow of Towers. New York Times A26

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Winklhofer 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Winklhofer 2012; Jakse and Pasturel 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Jakse and Pasturel 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Coelho et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleBehavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
AbbreviationBehav. Ecol. Sociobiol.
ISSN (print)0340-5443
ISSN (online)1432-0762
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

Other styles