How to format your references using the Atoms citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Atoms. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kristoufek, L. BitCoin Meets Google Trends and Wikipedia: Quantifying the Relationship between Phenomena of the Internet Era. Sci. Rep. 2013, 3, 3415.
A journal article with 2 authors
Headlam, D.; Brown, M. Comment on “The Geometry of Musical Chords.” Science 2007, 315, 330; author reply 330.
A journal article with 3 authors
Dutzler, R.; Campbell, E.B.; MacKinnon, R. Gating the Selectivity Filter in ClC Chloride Channels. Science 2003, 300, 108–112.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Chen, S.; White, B.J.; Sanderson, M.W.; Amrine, D.E.; Ilany, A.; Lanzas, C. Highly Dynamic Animal Contact Network and Implications on Disease Transmission. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 4472.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Center for Chemical Process Safety Guidelines for Safe Automation of Chemical Processes; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 1993; ISBN 9780470938256.
An edited book
Engineering Mathematics I: Electromagnetics, Fluid Mechanics, Material Physics and Financial Engineering; Silvestrov, S., Rančić, M., Eds.; Springer Proceedings in Mathematics & Statistics; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2016; Vol. 178; ISBN 9783319420813.
A chapter in an edited book
Pietri, I.; Sakellariou, R. Cost-Efficient CPU Provisioning for Scientific Workflows on Clouds. In Economics of Grids, Clouds, Systems, and Services: 12th International Conference, GECON 2015, Cluj-Napoca, Romania, September 15-17, 2015, Revised Selected Papers; Altmann, J., Silaghi, G.C., Rana, O.F., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2016; pp. 49–64 ISBN 9783319431765.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Atoms.

Blog post
Davis, J. Trial Provides Tentative Hope Of “Functional Cure” For Some People Living With HIV Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Compensation for Service as Teacher With the Overseas Dependents Schools; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1976;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tajer, S.A. Topics in MIMO Networks. Doctoral dissertation, Columbia University: New York, NY, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cowen, T. More Time to Unwind, Unless You’re a Woman. New York Times 2016, BU3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAtoms
ISSN (online)2218-2004

Other styles