How to format your references using the Behavior Therapy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Behavior Therapy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fehr, E. (2004). The productivity of failures. Nature, 428(6984), 701.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ikehara, T., & Kataoka, T. (2013). Relation between the helical twist and S-shaped cross section of the lamellar crystals of polyethylene. Scientific Reports, 3, 1444.
A journal article with 3 authors
Daw, R., Finkelstein, J., & Helmer, M. (2012). Chemistry and energy. Nature, 488(7411), 293.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Head, J. J., Bloch, J. I., Hastings, A. K., Bourque, J. R., Cadena, E. A., Herrera, F. A., Polly, P. D., & Jaramillo, C. A. (2009). Giant boid snake from the Palaeocene neotropics reveals hotter past equatorial temperatures. Nature, 457(7230), 715–717.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Goddard Blythe, S. (2012). Assessing Neuromotor Readiness for Learning. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Holz, F. G., & Spaide, R. F. (Eds.). (2005). Medical Retina. Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
de Maio, M., & Rzany, B. (2007). The Most Common Indications. In M. de Maio & B. Rzany (Eds.), Botulinum Toxin in Aesthetic Medicine (pp. 27–92). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Behavior Therapy.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, December 9). Mars Rover Observations Suggest Giant Crater Used To Hold An Ancient Lake. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1972). An Incident of Contamination of Livestock Feed and Certain Consumer Products (B-164031(2)). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Jenrich, M. A. (2017). “To treat her as a woman”: African American women and respectability in New York, 1860-1890 [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. (2010, November 28). Bond Between Generations, With Football On the Side. New York Times, SP1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Fehr, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Fehr, 2004; Ikehara & Kataoka, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ikehara & Kataoka, 2013)
  • Three authors: (Daw et al., 2012)
  • 6 or more authors: (Head et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleBehavior Therapy
AbbreviationBehav. Ther.
ISSN (print)0005-7894
ScopeClinical Psychology

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