How to format your references using the Behavior Therapy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Behavior Therapy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hanson, B. (2005). Sumatra-Andaman earthquake. Learning from natural disasters. Introduction. Science (New York, N.Y.), 308(5725), 1125.
A journal article with 2 authors
Pati, A. K., & Braunstein, S. L. (2000). Impossibility of deleting an unknown quantum state. Nature, 404(6774), 164–165.
A journal article with 3 authors
Park, I.-U., Peacey, M. W., & Munafò, M. R. (2014). Modelling the effects of subjective and objective decision making in scientific peer review. Nature, 506(7486), 93–96.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Schacherer, J., Shapiro, J. A., Ruderfer, D. M., & Kruglyak, L. (2009). Comprehensive polymorphism survey elucidates population structure of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Nature, 458(7236), 342–345.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Holzer, S. M. (2015). Statische Beurteilung Historischer Tragwerke. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Wood, L. N. (2012). Becoming a Mathematician: An international perspective (P. Petocz & A. Reid, Eds.; Vol. 56). Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Zaman, N., & Chowdhury, M. (2013). Multimedia Stream Rate Control over MANET Based on Router Feedback. In R. Lee (Ed.), Software Engineering, Artificial Intelligence, Networking and Parallel/Distributed Computing 2012 (pp. 53–68). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Behavior Therapy.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2015, September 26). Early Australians Overlapped With Giant, Predatory Lizards. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1977). Mission Budgeting: Discussion and Illustration of the Concept in Research and Development Programs (PSAD-77-124). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Eldanaf, R. G. (2012). Angry Cherub [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Otis, J. (2017, January 24). Raising Grandchildren in a Home That’s Brimming With Love, and Open to All. New York Times, A21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hanson, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Hanson, 2005; Pati & Braunstein, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Pati & Braunstein, 2000)
  • Three authors: (Park et al., 2014)
  • 6 or more authors: (Schacherer et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleBehavior Therapy
AbbreviationBehav. Ther.
ISSN (print)0005-7894
ScopeClinical Psychology

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