How to format your references using the Behavior Therapy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Behavior Therapy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bird, A. (2007). Perceptions of epigenetics. Nature, 447(7143), 396–398.
A journal article with 2 authors
Chu, S., & Majumdar, A. (2012). Opportunities and challenges for a sustainable energy future. Nature, 488(7411), 294–303.
A journal article with 3 authors
Tang, C., Iwahara, J., & Clore, G. M. (2006). Visualization of transient encounter complexes in protein-protein association. Nature, 444(7117), 383–386.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Hartschuh, A., Pedrosa, H. N., Novotny, L., & Krauss, T. D. (2003). Simultaneous fluorescence and Raman scattering from single carbon nanotubes. Science (New York, N.Y.), 301(5638), 1354–1356.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kobilinsky, L., Liotti, T. F., & Oeser-Sweat, J. (2004). DNA: Forensic and Legal Applications. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Sanfeliu, A., & Cortés, M. L. (Eds.). (2005). Progress in Pattern Recognition, Image Analysis and Applications: 10th Iberoamerican Congress on Pattern Recognition, CIARP 2005, Havana, Cuba, November 15-18, 2005. Proceedings (Vol. 3773). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Li, H., Wu, K., Yu, F., & Yuan, H. (2010). Evaluation Metrics of Physical Non-invasive Security. In P. Samarati, M. Tunstall, J. Posegga, K. Markantonakis, & D. Sauveron (Eds.), Information Security Theory and Practices. Security and Privacy of Pervasive Systems and Smart Devices: 4th IFIP WG 11.2 International Workshop, WISTP 2010, Passau, Germany, April 12-14, 2010. Proceedings (pp. 60–75). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Behavior Therapy.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2015, June 2). Many Endangered Species Doing Too Well For Their Own Good. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1999). Year 2000 Computing Challenge: The District of Columbia Cannot Reliably Track Y2K Costs (No. T-AIMD-99-298). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Greene, L. (2017). Perceptions Of Women Leaders In A Catholic Archdiocese: A Phenomenological Study (Doctoral dissertation). Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Oestreich, J. R. (2016, November 10). Juilliard’s Fast Takes on French Baroque. New York Times, p. C2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bird, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Bird, 2007; Chu & Majumdar, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Chu & Majumdar, 2012)
  • Three authors: (Tang, Iwahara, & Clore, 2006)
  • 6 or more authors: (Hartschuh, Pedrosa, Novotny, & Krauss, 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleBehavior Therapy
AbbreviationBehav. Ther.
ISSN (print)0005-7894
ScopeClinical Psychology

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