How to format your references using the Behavior Therapy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Behavior Therapy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Brumfiel, G. (2002). Keeping up appearances. Nature, 419(6906), 419.
A journal article with 2 authors
Nowak, M. A., & Sigmund, K. (2005). Evolution of indirect reciprocity. Nature, 437(7063), 1291–1298.
A journal article with 3 authors
Christodoulides, D. N., Lederer, F., & Silberberg, Y. (2003). Discretizing light behaviour in linear and nonlinear waveguide lattices. Nature, 424(6950), 817–823.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Wang, J., Feng, C.-Q., Sun, Z.-Q., Chou, S.-L., Liu, H.-K., & Wang, J.-Z. (2014). In-situ one-step hydrothermal synthesis of a lead germanate-graphene composite as a novel anode material for lithium-ion batteries. Scientific Reports, 4, 7030.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kenett, R. S., Zacks, S., & Amberti, D. (2013). Modern Industrial Statistics. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Dössel, O., & Schlegel, W. C. (Eds.). (2009). World Congress on Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, September 7 - 12, 2009, Munich, Germany: Vol. 25/5 Information and Communication in Medicine, Telemedicine and e-Health (Vol. 25/5). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Wang, Y., Zhang, J., Wang, Q., Lv, F., & Chen, K. (2015). Compressive Spectrum Sensing Based on Sparse Sub-band Basis in Wireless Sensor Network. In L. Sun, H. Ma, D. Fang, J. Niu, & W. Wang (Eds.), Advances in Wireless Sensor Networks: The 8th China Conference, CWSN 2014, Xi’an, China, October 31--November 2, 2014. Revised Selected Papers (pp. 52–58). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Behavior Therapy.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, September 15). Scientists Develop Blood-Cleansing Artificial Spleen. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2000). Commercial Motor Vehicles: Significant Actions Remain to Improve Truck Safety (T-RCED-00-102). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bravo, M. (2015). The development of a viable business plan: Analytics of 30 day readmission rates for hospitals and ancillary services [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
St. John Kelly, E. (1997, November 2). And Something for Your Dog as Well? New York Times, 144.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Brumfiel, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Brumfiel, 2002; Nowak & Sigmund, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Nowak & Sigmund, 2005)
  • Three authors: (Christodoulides et al., 2003)
  • 6 or more authors: (Wang et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleBehavior Therapy
AbbreviationBehav. Ther.
ISSN (print)0005-7894
ScopeClinical Psychology

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