How to format your references using the Journal of African American Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of African American Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Caldwell, M. (2007). Careers in behavioral science. Neuromarketing careers. Science (New York, N.Y.), 316(5827), 1060–1061.
A journal article with 2 authors
Margoliash, D., & Tchernichovski, O. (2015). DEVELOPMENT. Marmoset kids actually listen. Science (New York, N.Y.), 349(6249), 688–689.
A journal article with 3 authors
Thompson, J. K., Rainville, S., & Pritchard, D. E. (2004). Cyclotron frequency shifts arising from polarization forces. Nature, 430(6995), 58–61.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Moreno, C., Vilas-Varela, M., Kretz, B., Garcia-Lekue, A., Costache, M. V., Paradinas, M., et al. (2018). Bottom-up synthesis of multifunctional nanoporous graphene. Science (New York, N.Y.), 360(6385), 199–203.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wilson, M. (2013). Everyday Moral Economies. Oxford: John Wiley & Sons.
An edited book
Ustundag, A. (Ed.). (2013). The Value of RFID: Benefits vs. Costs. London: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Chakrabarty, S. (2007). Do Social Labeling NGOs Have Any Influence on Child Labor? In U. Grote, A. K. Basu, & N. H. Chau (Eds.), New Frontiers in Environmental and Social Labeling (pp. 59–82). Heidelberg: Physica-Verlag HD.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of African American Studies.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, August 19). Hummingbird Tongues Are Tiny Pumps That Spring Open To Draw In Nectar. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2005). Consolidation Loan Borrower Interest Rates (No. GAO-05-389R). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Equihua, D. (2010). The relationship of mental health and family factors to parental involvement in their children’s education among Latina mothers (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Leland, J. (2016, November 4). World Chess Smackdown! Be There! New York Times, p. MB1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Caldwell 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Caldwell 2007; Margoliash and Tchernichovski 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Margoliash and Tchernichovski 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Moreno et al. 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of African American Studies
AbbreviationJ. Afr. Am. Stud. (New Brunsw.)
ISSN (print)1559-1646
ISSN (online)1936-4741
ScopeSociology and Political Science
Cultural Studies
Gender Studies

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