How to format your references using the Journal of African American Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of African American Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hustad, P. D. (2009). Frontiers in olefin polymerization: reinventing the world’s most common synthetic polymers. Science (New York, N.Y.), 325(5941), 704–707.
A journal article with 2 authors
Chapman, A., & Wyndham, J. (2013). Human rights. A human right to science. Science (New York, N.Y.), 340(6138), 1291.
A journal article with 3 authors
Reznick, D. N., Mateos, M., & Springer, M. S. (2002). Independent origins and rapid evolution of the placenta in the fish genus Poeciliopsis. Science (New York, N.Y.), 298(5595), 1018–1020.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Zhou, T., Georgiev, I., Wu, X., Yang, Z.-Y., Dai, K., Finzi, A., et al. (2010). Structural basis for broad and potent neutralization of HIV-1 by antibody VRC01. Science (New York, N.Y.), 329(5993), 811–817.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Scheinfeld, R. (2009). Busting Loose from the Business Game. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Minker, W. (2009). Incorporating Knowledge Sources into Statistical Speech Recognition. (S. Nakamura, K. Markov, & S. Sakti, Eds.) (Vol. 42). Boston, MA: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Montgomery, S. C., Bauer, C. A., & Lobarinas, E. (2016). Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss. In C. G. Le Prell, E. Lobarinas, A. N. Popper, & R. R. Fay (Eds.), Translational Research in Audiology, Neurotology, and the Hearing Sciences (pp. 81–104). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of African American Studies.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2015, September 10). Scientists Fed Volunteers 6,000 Calories For Science. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1978). Better Criteria Needed for Awarding Grants for School Desegregation (No. HRD-78-36). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cheung, L. C. (2017). Mixture models for left- and interval-censored data and concordance indices for composite survival outcomes (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Flegenheimer, M. (2017, October 9). On Trump’s Right Flank, a Survivor Well Attuned to Resentment. New York Times, p. A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hustad 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Chapman and Wyndham 2013; Hustad 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Chapman and Wyndham 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Zhou et al. 2010)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of African American Studies
AbbreviationJ. Afr. Am. Stud. (New Brunsw.)
ISSN (print)1559-1646
ISSN (online)1936-4741
ScopeSociology and Political Science
Cultural Studies
Gender Studies

Other styles