How to format your references using the Journal of African American Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of African American Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Abbott, A. (2002). CERN collider project back on track. Nature, 420(6917), 721.
A journal article with 2 authors
Murray, N., & Holman, M. (2001). The role of chaotic resonances in the Solar System. Nature, 410(6830), 773–779.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bourne, P. E., Lorsch, J. R., & Green, E. D. (2015). Perspective: Sustaining the big-data ecosystem. Nature, 527(7576), S16-7.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Lelieveld, J., van Aardenne, J., Fischer, H., de Reus, M., Williams, J., & Winkler, P. (2004). Increasing ozone over the Atlantic Ocean. Science (New York, N.Y.), 304(5676), 1483–1487.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Heckman, R. (2016). Designing Platform Independent Mobile Apps and Services. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Alloin, D., Johnson, R., & Lira, P. (Eds.). (2006). Physics of Active Galactic Nuclei at all Scales (Vol. 693). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Kelle, S., Strobbe, C., & Zimmermann, G. (2014). A Showcase for Accessible Online Banking. In C. Stephanidis & M. Antona (Eds.), Universal Access in Human-Computer Interaction. Design for All and Accessibility Practice: 8th International Conference, UAHCI 2014, Held as Part of HCI International 2014, Heraklion, Crete, Greece, June 22-27, 2014, Proceedings, Part IV (pp. 37–45). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of African American Studies.

Blog post
Andrew, D. (2015, September 4). Enormous Sinkhole Opens Up In Manchester. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1976). Student Attrition at the Five Federal Service Academies - Enclosure C (No. FPCD-76-12C). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ball-Miles, N. M. (2014). The relationship between witnessing verbal marital conflict as a child and the behavioral anger responses in adulthood (Doctoral dissertation). Capella University, Minneapolis, MN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin, J. (2017, April 9). How Colbert Finally Got Real. New York Times, p. B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Abbott 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Abbott 2002; Murray and Holman 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Murray and Holman 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Lelieveld et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of African American Studies
AbbreviationJ. Afr. Am. Stud. (New Brunsw.)
ISSN (print)1559-1646
ISSN (online)1936-4741
ScopeSociology and Political Science
Cultural Studies
Gender Studies

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