How to format your references using the Journal of African American Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of African American Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Eisenstein, M. (2011). Telomeres: All’s well that ends well. Nature, 478(7368), S13-5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Relling, M. V., & Evans, W. E. (2015). Pharmacogenomics in the clinic. Nature, 526(7573), 343–350.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bhalla, U. S., Ram, P. T., & Iyengar, R. (2002). MAP kinase phosphatase as a locus of flexibility in a mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling network. Science (New York, N.Y.), 297(5583), 1018–1023.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Squartini, T., Picciolo, F., Ruzzenenti, F., & Garlaschelli, D. (2013). Reciprocity of weighted networks. Scientific reports, 3, 2729.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chan, N. H., & Wong, H. Y. (2006). Simulation Techniques in Financial Risk Management. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Hüllermeier, E., Kruse, R., & Hoffmann, F. (Eds.). (2010). Computational Intelligence for Knowledge-Based Systems Design: 13th International Conference on Information Processing and Management of Uncertainty, IPMU 2010, Dortmund, Germany, June 28 - July 2, 2010. Proceedings (Vol. 6178). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Veselá, P., & Lammerer, B. (2009). The Pfitsch-Mörchner Basin, an example of the post-Variscan sedimentary evolution in the Tauern Window (Eastern Alps). In N. Froitzheim & S. M. Schmid (Eds.), Orogenic Processes in the Alpine Collision Zone (pp. S73–S88). Basel: Birkhäuser.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of African American Studies.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, August 28). Are Creative People More Prone To Psychological Distress Or Is The ‘Mad Genius’ A Myth? IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1982). Prisoners Receiving Social Security and Other Federal Retirement, Disability, and Education Benefits (No. HRD-82-43). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Borogovac, A. (2010). Novel method for superior detection of functional changes in CBF using arterial spin labeling fMRI (Doctoral dissertation). Columbia University, New York, NY.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Chivers, C. J., & SOPHIA KISHKOVSKY; Erin Arvedlund contributed reporting from Moscow for this article. (2004, July 10). U.S. Investigative Journalist Is Shot to Death in Russia. New York Times, p. A4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Eisenstein 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Eisenstein 2011; Relling and Evans 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Relling and Evans 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Squartini et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of African American Studies
AbbreviationJ. Afr. Am. Stud. (New Brunsw.)
ISSN (print)1559-1646
ISSN (online)1936-4741
ScopeSociology and Political Science
Cultural Studies
Gender Studies

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