How to format your references using the Journal of African American Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of African American Studies (J Afr Am St). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Miller, S. J. (2009). Chemistry. Total chemical synthesis peers into the biosynthetic black box. Science (New York, N.Y.), 324(5924), 186–187.
A journal article with 2 authors
Geschwind, D. H., & Flint, J. (2015). Genetics and genomics of psychiatric disease. Science (New York, N.Y.), 349(6255), 1489–1494.
A journal article with 3 authors
Feurer, T., Vaughan, J. C., & Nelson, K. A. (2003). Spatiotemporal coherent control of lattice vibrational waves. Science (New York, N.Y.), 299(5605), 374–377.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Hsu, P. P., Kang, S. A., Rameseder, J., Zhang, Y., Ottina, K. A., Lim, D., et al. (2011). The mTOR-regulated phosphoproteome reveals a mechanism of mTORC1-mediated inhibition of growth factor signaling. Science (New York, N.Y.), 332(6035), 1317–1322.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Deutsche Gesellschaft für Geotechni, Laackmann, K., Balthaus, H., Braach, O., Friebel, W.-D., Hettler, A., et al. (2015). Taschenbuch für den Tunnelbau 2015. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Sericola, B., Telek, M., & Horváth, G. (Eds.). (2014). Analytical and Stochastic Modeling Techniques and Applications: 21st International Conference, ASMTA 2014, Budapest, Hungary, June 30 – July 2, 2014. Proceedings (Vol. 8499). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Hsiao, C.-P., & Johnson, B. R. (2011). TiMBA – Tangible User Interface for Model Building and Analysis. In J. A. Jacko (Ed.), Human-Computer Interaction. Interaction Techniques and Environments: 14th International Conference, HCI International 2011, Orlando, FL, USA, July 9-14, 2011, Proceedings, Part II (pp. 43–52). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of African American Studies.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, April 22). Dispersants Sprayed In Wake Of Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill More Toxic Than Oil Alone. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1985). Information on the National School Safety Center (No. GGD-85-74). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Richardson, M. M. (2013). Challenging the South’s black-white binary: Haliwa-Saponi Indians and political autonomy (Doctoral dissertation). University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, R. (2000, November 5). The New Southern Male. New York Times, p. 728.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Triendl 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Merilä 2015; Petroff 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Geschwind and Flint 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Christlieb et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of African American Studies
AbbreviationJ. Afr. Am. Stud. (New Brunsw.)
ISSN (print)1559-1646
ISSN (online)1936-4741
ScopeSociology and Political Science
Cultural Studies
Gender Studies

Other styles