How to format your references using the Batteries citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Batteries. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Shanklin, J. Reflections on the Ozone Hole. Nature 2010, 465, 34–35.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hansen, J.D.; Reich, J. Democratizing Education? Examining Access and Usage Patterns in Massive Open Online Courses. Science 2015, 350, 1245–1248.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lovejoy, C.O.; Heiple, K.G.; Meindl, R.S. Palaeoanthropology: Did Our Ancestors Knuckle-Walk? Nature 2001, 410, 325–326.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Tsukuda, T.; Fleming, A.B.; Nickoloff, J.A.; Osley, M.A. Chromatin Remodelling at a DNA Double-Strand Break Site in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae. Nature 2005, 438, 379–383.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Moeller, R.R. Executive’s Guide to IT Governance; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2013; ISBN 9781118540176.
An edited book
Mazzola, G. All About Music: The Complete Ontology: Realities, Semiotics, Communication, and Embodiment; Mannone, M., Pang, Y., O’Brien, M., Torunsky, N., Eds.; Computational Music Science; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2016; ISBN 9783319473338.
A chapter in an edited book
Francesconi, A.; Dossena, C. A Strategic and Organizational Perspective for Understanding the Evolution of Online Reputation Management Systems. In From Information to Smart Society: Environment, Politics and Economics; Mola, L., Pennarola, F., Za, S., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Information Systems and Organisation; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2015; pp. 49–61 ISBN 9783319094496.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Batteries.

Blog post
Hale, T. China Wants To Revive The World’s Largest Ever Plane Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office The Summer Feeding Program for Children: Reforms Begun--Many More Urgently Needed; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1978;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Vaughan, L. Executive Function in Daily Life: Age-Related Influences of Executive Processes on Instrumental Activities of Daily Living. Doctoral dissertation, University of North Carolina: Chapel Hill, NC, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Yagoda, B. Bohemian Grove. New York Times 2016, BR14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBatteries
ISSN (online)2313-0105

Other styles