How to format your references using the Batteries citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Batteries. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dobson, A. Epidemiology. Mathematical models for emerging disease. Science 2014, 346, 1294–1295.
A journal article with 2 authors
Oh, D.Y.; Olefsky, J.M. Medicine. Wnt fans the flames in obesity. Science 2010, 329, 397–398.
A journal article with 3 authors
Achlioptas, D.; Naor, A.; Peres, Y. Rigorous location of phase transitions in hard optimization problems. Nature 2005, 435, 759–764.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Lanford, R.E.; Hildebrandt-Eriksen, E.S.; Petri, A.; Persson, R.; Lindow, M.; Munk, M.E.; Kauppinen, S.; Ørum, H. Therapeutic silencing of microRNA-122 in primates with chronic hepatitis C virus infection. Science 2010, 327, 198–201.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ahonen, T.T.; Kasper, T.; Melkko, S. 3G Marketing; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2005; ISBN 9780470011188.
An edited book
Cultural Heritage in a Changing World; Borowiecki, K.J., Forbes, N., Fresa, A., Eds.; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2016; ISBN 9783319295428.
A chapter in an edited book
Adamo, A.; Grossi, G.; Lanzarotti, R. Face Recognition in Uncontrolled Conditions Using Sparse Representation and Local Features. In Image Analysis and Processing – ICIAP 2013: 17th International Conference, Naples, Italy, September 9-13, 2013, Proceedings, Part II; Petrosino, A., Ed.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013; pp. 31–40 ISBN 9783642411830.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Batteries.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Researchers Identify Origin of Violent Gamma-Ray Outbursts Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Radio Frequencies: Earlier Coordination Could Improve System Use and Save Costs; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1987;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mendez, H. Examination of friendship and burnout among child welfare workers. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Vecsey, G. A Shot That Sank a Season. New York Times 2012, B18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBatteries
ISSN (online)2313-0105

Other styles