How to format your references using the Batteries citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Batteries. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hoskins, B.J. Atmospheric Science. Climate Change at Cruising Altitude? Science 2003, 301, 469–470.
A journal article with 2 authors
Anderson, R.; Moore, T. The Economics of Information Security. Science 2006, 314, 610–613.
A journal article with 3 authors
Xue, P.; Qin, H.; Tang, B. Trapping Photons on the Line: Controllable Dynamics of a Quantum Walk. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 4825.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Cardinale, B.J.; Srivastava, D.S.; Duffy, J.E.; Wright, J.P.; Downing, A.L.; Sankaran, M.; Jouseau, C. Effects of Biodiversity on the Functioning of Trophic Groups and Ecosystems. Nature 2006, 443, 989–992.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zito, R. Electrochemical Water Processing; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2011; ISBN 9781118104675.
An edited book
Law, K.M.Y. Yin Yang and Organizational Performance: Five Elements for Improvement and Success; Kesti, M., Ed.; Springer: London, 2014; ISBN 9781447163886.
A chapter in an edited book
Nguyen, N.-Q.H.; Le, T.H. Pose Estimation Using Local Binary Patterns for Face Recognition. In Artificial Intelligence Perspectives and Applications: Proceedings of the 4th Computer Science On-line Conference 2015 (CSOC2015), Vol 1: Artificial Intelligence Perspectives and Applications; Silhavy, R., Senkerik, R., Oplatkova, Z.K., Prokopova, Z., Silhavy, P., Eds.; Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2015; pp. 39–49 ISBN 9783319184753.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Batteries.

Blog post
Hale, T. This Fish Can Survive Crazy Levels Of Pollution Thanks To Rapid Evolution Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Air Traffic Control: Efforts to Modernize Oceanic System Delayed; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1991;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tripamer, A.J. Teacher Perceptions of Teacher Evaluations in the Fort Zumwalt School District. Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University: Edwardsville, IL, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario, B. Prince Estate in Deal With Universal. New York Times 2017, C2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBatteries
ISSN (online)2313-0105

Other styles