How to format your references using the Batteries citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Batteries. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Velev, O.D. Materials science. Self-assembly of unusual nanoparticle crystals. Science 2006, 312, 376–377.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rinn, J.; Guttman, M. RNA Function. RNA and dynamic nuclear organization. Science 2014, 345, 1240–1241.
A journal article with 3 authors
Akihiko, T.; Morioka, Y.; Behera, S.K. Role of climate variability in the heatstroke death rates of Kanto region in Japan. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 5655.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Guy, J.; Gan, J.; Selfridge, J.; Cobb, S.; Bird, A. Reversal of neurological defects in a mouse model of Rett syndrome. Science 2007, 315, 1143–1147.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ocic, O. Oil Refineries in the 21st Century; Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA: Weinheim, FRG, 2004; ISBN 9783527604142.
An edited book
E-Infrastuctures and E-Services for Developing Countries: Second International ICST Conference, AFRICOM 2010, Cape Town, South Africa, November 25-26, 2010, Revised Selected Papers; Popescu-Zeletin, R., Rai, I.A., Jonas, K., Villafiorita, A., Eds.; Lecture Notes of the Institute for Computer Sciences, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2011; Vol. 64; ISBN 9783642238277.
A chapter in an edited book
Golan, M.; Fransson, G. Professional Codes of Conduct; Towards an Ethical Framework for Novice Teacher Educators. In Becoming a Teacher Educator: Theory and Practice for Teacher Educators; Swennen, A., Klink, M. van der, Eds.; Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht, 2009; pp. 45–57 ISBN 9781402088735.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Batteries.

Blog post
Davis, J. New Drug Helps Reverse Aging In Mice Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Expenditure of Federal Funds by Timberlane Regional High School District, New Hampshire; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1970;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Alderson, M. Procedural Justice and Police Encounters with Homeless Injecting Drug Users. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Berkman, S. A Beauty of a Pitchers’ Duel? Try an Ugly Slugfest. New York Times 2017, D5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBatteries
ISSN (online)2313-0105

Other styles