How to format your references using the Batteries citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Batteries. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Toulouse, G. Community Groups Could Show Unesco the Way. Nature 2000, 405, 394.
A journal article with 2 authors
Peers, G.; Price, N.M. Copper-Containing Plastocyanin Used for Electron Transport by an Oceanic Diatom. Nature 2006, 441, 341–344.
A journal article with 3 authors
Yashiro, K.; Shiratori, H.; Hamada, H. Haemodynamics Determined by a Genetic Programme Govern Asymmetric Development of the Aortic Arch. Nature 2007, 450, 285–288.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
McManus, J.F.; Francois, R.; Gherardi, J.-M.; Keigwin, L.D.; Brown-Leger, S. Collapse and Rapid Resumption of Atlantic Meridional Circulation Linked to Deglacial Climate Changes. Nature 2004, 428, 834–837.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zhu, Q.K. Power Distribution Network Design For VLSI; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2005; ISBN 9780471660309.
An edited book
Biomechanical Modelling at the Molecular, Cellular and Tissue Levels; Holzapfel, G.A., Ogden, R.W., Eds.; CISM International Centre for Mechanical Sciences; Springer: Vienna, 2009; Vol. 508; ISBN 9783211958735.
A chapter in an edited book
Yanovsky, V.; Rumble, S.M.; Brudno, M. Read Mapping Algorithms for Single Molecule Sequencing Data. In Algorithms in Bioinformatics: 8th International Workshop, WABI 2008, Karlsruhe, Germany, September 15-19, 2008. Proceedings; Crandall, K.A., Lagergren, J., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2008; pp. 38–49 ISBN 9783540873600.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Batteries.

Blog post
Andrew, E. The Science And Fiction Behind Blade Runner Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office ADP Acquisition: Army Civilian Personnel System; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1989;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Walsh, E.F. The Development of Comprehensive Criminal Justice Leadership Standards: A Modified Delphi Study Approach. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix: Phoenix, AZ, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Oestreich, J.R. Verdi’s Requiem, in All Its Theatricality and Resonance. New York Times 2016, C4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBatteries
ISSN (online)2313-0105

Other styles