How to format your references using the Basic and Applied Ecology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Basic and Applied Ecology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rustichini, A. (2005). Neuroscience. Emotion and reason in making decisions. Science (New York, N.Y.), 310(5754), 1624–1625.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wolfe, M. S., & Selkoe, D. J. (2002). Biochemistry. Intramembrane proteases--mixing oil and water. Science (New York, N.Y.), 296(5576), 2156–2157.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lou, X., Scheuss, V., & Schneggenburger, R. (2005). Allosteric modulation of the presynaptic Ca2+ sensor for vesicle fusion. Nature, 435(7041), 497–501.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Juodkazis, S., Mukai, N., Wakaki, R., Yamaguchi, A., Matsuo, S., & Misawa, H. (2000). Reversible phase transitions in polymer gels induced by radiation forces. Nature, 408(6809), 178–181.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bonnet, P. (2013). Enterprise Data Governance. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Mason, G., Penkov, I., & Wolf, J. A. (Eds.). (2014). Developments and Retrospectives in Lie Theory: Geometric and Analytic Methods (Vol. 37). Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Kalnins, E. G., Kress, J. M., & Miller, W. (2008). Fine Structure for Second Order Superintegrable Systems. In M. Eastwood & W. Miller (Eds.), Symmetries and Overdetermined Systems of Partial Differential Equations (pp. 77–103). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Basic and Applied Ecology.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, May 31). Scientists Use 3D Printing To Produce Blood Vessels. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1978). Navigation Planning: Need for a New Direction (LCD-77-109). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Grzeda, S. (2012). Use of Binomial Cluster Analysis in the Identification of Temporary Disaster Debris Management Sites [Doctoral dissertation]. George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. (2010, June 26). When Loss Means Disappointment, Not Disaster. New York Times, D2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Rustichini, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Rustichini, 2005; Wolfe & Selkoe, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wolfe & Selkoe, 2002)
  • Three authors: (Lou et al., 2005)
  • 6 or more authors: (Juodkazis et al., 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleBasic and Applied Ecology
AbbreviationBasic Appl. Ecol.
ISSN (print)1439-1791
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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