How to format your references using the Basic and Applied Ecology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Basic and Applied Ecology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Stachel, J. (2005). 1905 and all that. Nature, 433(7023), 215–217.
A journal article with 2 authors
Leeman, D. S., & Brunet, A. (2014). Stem cells: Sex specificity in the blood. Nature, 505(7484), 488–490.
A journal article with 3 authors
Li, X., Yang, Y., & Ashwell, J. D. (2002). TNF-RII and c-IAP1 mediate ubiquitination and degradation of TRAF2. Nature, 416(6878), 345–347.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Tahiliani, M., Mei, P., Fang, R., Leonor, T., Rutenberg, M., Shimizu, F., Li, J., Rao, A., & Shi, Y. (2007). The histone H3K4 demethylase SMCX links REST target genes to X-linked mental retardation. Nature, 447(7144), 601–605.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wang, J.-J. (2014). Hydraulic Fracturing in Earth-Rock Fill DAMS. John Wiley & Sons, Singapore Pte. Ltd.
An edited book
Radwan, A., & Rodriguez, J. (Eds.). (2015). Energy Efficient Smart Phones for 5G Networks. Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Krum, S., Hevelingen, W. V., Kero, B., Turnbull, J., & McCune, J. (2013). Scaling Puppet. In W. V. Hevelingen, B. Kero, J. Turnbull, & J. McCune (Eds.), Pro Puppet: The Definitive Guide to Selling Abroad Profitably (pp. 97–140). Apress.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Basic and Applied Ecology.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, October 14). 25 Bizarre Genetic And Developmental Mistakes You Have to See to Believe. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2003). Information Technology Training: Practices of Leading Private-Sector Companies (GAO-03-390). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Andrus, A. K. (2017). Cellular and Proteomic Characterization of the Innate Immune Response in Wasting Bat Stars (Patiria miniata) [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Nir, S. M., & Rosenberg, E. (2016, September 1). ­Recreation and Commerce Collide on City’s Crowded Waterways. New York Times, A21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Stachel, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Leeman & Brunet, 2014; Stachel, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Leeman & Brunet, 2014)
  • Three authors: (Li et al., 2002)
  • 6 or more authors: (Tahiliani et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleBasic and Applied Ecology
AbbreviationBasic Appl. Ecol.
ISSN (print)1439-1791
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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