How to format your references using the Basic and Applied Ecology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Basic and Applied Ecology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Abele, D. (2002). Toxic oxygen: the radical life-giver. Nature, 420(6911), 27.
A journal article with 2 authors
Koch, S. W., & Knorr, A. (2001). Applied physics. Optics in the nano-world. Science (New York, N.Y.), 293(5538), 2217–2218.
A journal article with 3 authors
Tseng, C.-H., Gobell, J. L., & Sperling, G. (2004). Long-lasting sensitization to a given colour after visual search. Nature, 428(6983), 657–660.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Imaizumi, T., Tran, H. G., Swartz, T. E., Briggs, W. R., & Kay, S. A. (2003). FKF1 is essential for photoperiodic-specific light signalling in Arabidopsis. Nature, 426(6964), 302–306.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Schepers, U. (2004). RNA Interference in Practice. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Choi, J., & Friedland, G. (Eds.). (2015). Multimodal Location Estimation of Videos and Images. Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Majumder, M., & Barman, R. N. (2013). Application of a Genetic Algorithm to Predict the Growth Rate of Bufo melanostictus in Urban Forest. In M. Majumder & R. N. Barman (Eds.), Application of Nature Based Algorithm in Natural Resource Management (pp. 59–74). Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Basic and Applied Ecology.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2014, September 29). Bats Mistaken Wind Turbines For Trees. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1977). Review of NASA Contract To Determine Procedures Used in Negotiating Noncompetitive Contracts (No. 104925). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Underwood, V. L. (2010). The effect of guided reading instruction on reading achievement [Doctoral dissertation]. Lindenwood University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
St. John Kelly, E. (1998, May 10). Circular Makes the Rounds and Residents Complain. New York Times, 148.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Abele, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Abele, 2002; Koch & Knorr, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Koch & Knorr, 2001)
  • Three authors: (Tseng et al., 2004)
  • 6 or more authors: (Imaizumi et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleBasic and Applied Ecology
AbbreviationBasic Appl. Ecol.
ISSN (print)1439-1791
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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