How to format your references using the Basic and Applied Ecology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Basic and Applied Ecology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bjorn, G. (2008). Dissension in the ranks. Nature, 454(7207), 1024–1025.
A journal article with 2 authors
Xu, B., & Tao, N. J. (2003). Measurement of single-molecule resistance by repeated formation of molecular junctions. Science (New York, N.Y.), 301(5637), 1221–1223.
A journal article with 3 authors
Altshuler, D., Daly, M. J., & Lander, E. S. (2008). Genetic mapping in human disease. Science (New York, N.Y.), 322(5903), 881–888.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Coskun, U. C., Wei, T.-C., Vishveshwara, S., Goldbart, P. M., & Bezryadin, A. (2004). h/e magnetic flux modulation of the energy gap in nanotube quantum dots. Science (New York, N.Y.), 304(5674), 1132–1134.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Raymond, S. U. (2013). Recession, Recovery, and Renewal: Long-Term Nonprofit Strategies for Rapid Economic Change. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Pobil, A. P. del, Chinellato, E., Martinez-Martin, E., Hallam, J., Cervera, E., & Morales, A. (Eds.). (2014). From Animals to Animats 13: 13th International Conference on Simulation of Adaptive Behavior, SAB 2014, Castellón, Spain, July 22-25, 2014. Proceedings (Vol. 8575). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Henning, M. A., & Yeo, A. (2013). Total Domination in Trees. In A. Yeo (Ed.), Total Domination in Graphs (pp. 31–38). New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Basic and Applied Ecology.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2015, May 12). US Government Allows Shell to Resume Drilling In The Arctic. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1990). Issues Related to FAA’s Modernization of the Air Traffic Control System (No. T-RCED-90-32). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Roy, R. (2013). “Jagoron: Awakening” to Gender in Non Governmental Organizations in Contemporary Bengal (Doctoral dissertation). Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. (2012, November 3). Wisely Stepping Aside In a Bombarded City. New York Times, p. D3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bjorn, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Bjorn, 2008; Xu & Tao, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Xu & Tao, 2003)
  • Three authors: (Altshuler, Daly, & Lander, 2008)
  • 6 or more authors: (Coskun, Wei, Vishveshwara, Goldbart, & Bezryadin, 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleBasic and Applied Ecology
AbbreviationBasic Appl. Ecol.
ISSN (print)1439-1791
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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