How to format your references using the Annals of Otology, Rhinology and Laryngology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Annals of Otology, Rhinology and Laryngology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lucas R. Journal club. A neuroscientist explores the network of cells in the retina. Nature. 2010 Mar 4;464(7285):11.
A journal article with 2 authors
Littman DR, Singh H. Immunology. Asymmetry and immune memory. Science. 2007 Mar 23;315(5819):1673–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kender S, Yu J, Peck VL. Deep ocean carbonate ion increase during mid Miocene CO2 decline. Sci Rep. 2014 Feb 26;4:4187.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Marshall JC, Acuña V, Allen DC, Bonada N, Boulton AJ, Carlson SM, et al. Protecting U.S. temporary waterways. Science. 2018 Aug 31;361(6405):856–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Blume SW. High Voltage Protection for Telecommunications. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
Mansour N, Al-Shamrani S, editors. Science Education in the Arab Gulf States: Visions, Sociocultural Contexts and Challenges. Rotterdam: SensePublishers; 2015. XXII, 244 p. 2 illus., 1 illus. in color. (Cultural and Historical Perspectives on Science Education, Distinguished Contributors).
A chapter in an edited book
Mershin A, Sanabria H, Miller JH, Nawarathna D, Skoulakis EMC, Mavromatos NE, et al. Towards Experimental Tests of Quantum Effects in Cytoskeletal Proteins. In: Tuszynski JA, editor. The Emerging Physics of Consciousness. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2006. p. 95–170. (The Frontiers Collection).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Annals of Otology, Rhinology and Laryngology.

Blog post
Fang J. Humans Took Refuge In Arabia During The Last Ice Age [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Strategic Mobility: Serious Problems Remain in U.S. Deployment Capabilities. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1994 Apr. Report No.: T-NSIAD-94-165.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Schultz SM. Interpreting the assemblages of Lonnie Holley through his performative explanations [Doctoral dissertation]. [Chapel Hill, NC]: University of North Carolina; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Poniewozik J. Rebooting the Dawn of Silicon Valley. New York Times. 2016 Aug 23;C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleAnnals of Otology, Rhinology and Laryngology
AbbreviationAnn. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol.
ISSN (print)0003-4894
ScopeGeneral Medicine

Other styles