# How to format your references using the Annals of Otology, Rhinology and Laryngology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Annals of Otology, Rhinology and Laryngology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

## Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

## Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Höfte H. Plant biology. A Baroque residue in red wine. Science. 2001 Oct 26;294(5543):795–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Morris SC, Caron J-B. Halwaxiids and the early evolution of the lophotrochozoans. Science. 2007 Mar 2;315(5816):1255–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Acuña JL, López-Urrutia Á, Colin S. Faking giants: the evolution of high prey clearance rates in jellyfishes. Science. 2011 Sep 16;333(6049):1627–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Matsuyama E, Kondo T, Oigawa H, Guo D, Nemoto S, Nakamura J. Principles and application of heterodyne scanning tunnelling spectroscopy. Sci Rep. 2014 Oct 24;4:6711.

## Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Tourlakis G. Mathematical Logic. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2008.
An edited book
1.
Gemzöe L, Keinänen M-L, Maddrell A, editors. Contemporary Encounters in Gender and Religion: European Perspectives. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. XVII, 364 p. 5 illus.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Cimini M, Coen CS, Sangiorgi D. Functions as Processes: Termination and the $\lambda\mu\widetilde{\mu}$ -Calculus. In: Wirsing M, Hofmann M, Rauschmayer A, editors. Trustworthly Global Computing: 5th International Symposium, TGC 2010, Munich, Germany, February 24-26, 2010, Revised Selected Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010. p. 73–86. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science).

## Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Annals of Otology, Rhinology and Laryngology.

Blog post
1.
Hale T. Google Wants To Run On 100% Renewable Energy By 2017 [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/environment/google-wants-to-run-on-100-renewable-energy-by-2017/

## Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Race to the Top: Characteristics of Grantees’ Amended Programs and Education’s Review Process. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2011 Dec. Report No.: GAO-12-228R.

## Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Pan X. Using Structural Information in Modeling and Multiple Alignments for Phylogenetics [Doctoral dissertation]. [Columbus, OH]: Ohio State University; 2008.

## News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Greenhouse L. Justices Uphold a Death Sentence Twice Overturned. New York Times. 2006 Nov 14;A25.

## In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).