How to format your references using the Annals of Otology, Rhinology and Laryngology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Annals of Otology, Rhinology and Laryngology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Boss AP. Star formation. Three’s a crowd. Nature. 2000 May 25;405(6785):405, 407.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hawker CJ, Wooley KL. The convergence of synthetic organic and polymer chemistries. Science. 2005 Aug 19;309(5738):1200–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
Huang X, Hansen N, Tsuji N. Hardening by annealing and softening by deformation in nanostructured metals. Science. 2006 Apr 14;312(5771):249–51.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Gough DJ, Corlett A, Schlessinger K, Wegrzyn J, Larner AC, Levy DE. Mitochondrial STAT3 supports Ras-dependent oncogenic transformation. Science. 2009 Jun 26;324(5935):1713–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Center for Chemical Process Safety. Guidelines for Chemical Process Quantitative Risk Analysis. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
Torre T, Braccini AM, Spinelli R, editors. Empowering Organizations: Enabling Platforms and Artefacts. 1st ed. 2016. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. VII, 315 p. 63 illus. (Lecture Notes in Information Systems and Organisation; vol. 11).
A chapter in an edited book
FitzSimons GE. Learning Mathematics In and Out of School: A Workplace Education Perspective. In: Gellert U, Giménez Rodríguez J, Hahn C, Kafoussi S, editors. Educational Paths to Mathematics: A CIEAEM Sourcebook. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. p. 99–115. (Advances in Mathematics Education).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Annals of Otology, Rhinology and Laryngology.

Blog post
Andrew E. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. We Mightn’t Like It, But There Are Ethical Reasons To Use Animals In Medical Research. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Propriety of the City Edges Grant Awarded to the Suburban Action Institute. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1973 Sep. Report No.: B-158811.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Yi M. Interrater reliability between novice and expert functional movement screen raters [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner J. Mets’ Pick for Manager Is Heavy on Pitching and Youth. New York Times. 2017 Oct 22;D2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleAnnals of Otology, Rhinology and Laryngology
AbbreviationAnn. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol.
ISSN (print)0003-4894
ScopeGeneral Medicine

Other styles