How to format your references using the Annals of Otology, Rhinology and Laryngology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Annals of Otology, Rhinology and Laryngology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sloboda J. Q&A: Melodic psychologist. Interview by Jascha Hoffman. Nature. 2014 Feb 27;506(7489):433.
A journal article with 2 authors
Vajda V, McLoughlin S. Fungal proliferation at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary. Science. 2004 Mar 5;303(5663):1489.
A journal article with 3 authors
Giovannetti V, Lloyd S, Maccone L. Quantum-enhanced positioning and clock synchronization. Nature. 2001 Jul 26;412(6845):417–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Rajkovic A, Pangas SA, Ballow D, Suzumori N, Matzuk MM. NOBOX deficiency disrupts early folliculogenesis and oocyte-specific gene expression. Science. 2004 Aug 20;305(5687):1157–9.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sato T, Kammen DM, Duan B, Macuha M, Zhou Z, Wu J, et al. Smart Grid Standards. Singapore: John Wiley & Sons Singapore Pte. Ltd; 2015.
An edited book
Schmüser P. Free-Electron Lasers in the Ultraviolet and X-Ray Regime: Physical Principles, Experimental Results, Technical Realization. 2nd ed. 2014. Dohlus M, Rossbach J, Behrens C, editors. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014. XV, 231 p. 114 illus., 111 illus. in color. (Springer Tracts in Modern Physics; vol. 258).
A chapter in an edited book
Enriquez A, Tomecki KJ. Dermatological Diseases Affecting the Genitourinary System. In: Potts JM, editor. Genitourinary Pain And Inflammation: Diagnosis And Management. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press; 2008. p. 57–76. (Current Clinical Urology).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Annals of Otology, Rhinology and Laryngology.

Blog post
Fang J. Primordial Cold Spot Caused By Supervoid [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Computer Systems: Continued Oversight Crucial for Air Force’s Requirements Data Bank. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1986 Dec. Report No.: IMTEC-87-6.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ward D. Teaching with the End in Mind: A Teacher’s Life History as a Legacy of Educational Leaders [Doctoral dissertation]. [Tampa, FL]: University of South Florida; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly DA. Weekender | Bennington, Vt. New York Times. 2002 Sep 6;F6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleAnnals of Otology, Rhinology and Laryngology
AbbreviationAnn. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol.
ISSN (print)0003-4894
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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