How to format your references using the Journal of Linguistics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Linguistics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Searls, David B. 2002. The language of genes. Nature 420(6912), 211–217.
A journal article with 2 authors
Panstruga, Ralph & Peter N. Dodds. 2009. Terrific protein traffic: the mystery of effector protein delivery by filamentous plant pathogens. Science (New York, N.Y.) 324(5928), 748–750.
A journal article with 3 authors
Marangon, Davide G., Giuseppe Vallone & Paolo Villoresi. 2014. Random bits, true and unbiased, from atmospheric turbulence. Scientific reports 4, 5490.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Ding, Liang-Xin, An-Liang Wang, Yan-Nan Ou, Qi Li, Rui Guo, Wen-Xia Zhao, Ye-Xiang Tong & Gao-Ren Li. 2013. Hierarchical Pd-Sn alloy nanosheet dendrites: an economical and highly active catalyst for ethanol electrooxidation. Scientific reports 3, 1181.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Shreves, Ric & Brice Dunwoodie. 2011. Drupal® 7 Bible. Indianapolis, IN, USA: Wiley Publishing, Inc.
An edited book
Baudenbacher, Carl (ed.). 2016. The Handbook of EEA Law. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
McIntyre, Nancy E., K. Knowles-Yánez & D. Hope. 2008. Urban Ecology as an Interdisciplinary Field: Differences in the use of “Urban” Between the Social and Natural Sciences. In John M. Marzluff, Eric Shulenberger, Wilfried Endlicher, Marina Alberti, Gordon Bradley, Clare Ryan, Ute Simon & Craig ZumBrunnen (eds.), Urban Ecology: An International Perspective on the Interaction Between Humans and Nature, 49–65. Boston, MA: Springer US.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Linguistics.

Blog post
Luntz, Stephen. 2014. Mysterious Lake Appears In The Middle Of The Desert Without Explanation. IFLScience. IFLScience. (30 October, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1984. Query Concerning FY 1985 Authorization Levels for Department of Education Programs. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mier, Lynetta M. 2012. Monitoring Electron Transfer Reactions using Ultrafast UV-Visible and Infrared Spectroscopy. Ohio State University Doctoral dissertation.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Corkery, Michael & Mary Williams Walsh. 2015. Governor of Puerto Rico Warns of Looming Default Without Bankruptcy Plan. New York Times.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Searls 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Searls 2002; Panstruga & Dodds 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Panstruga & Dodds 2009)
  • Three authors: (Marangon, Vallone & Villoresi 2014)
  • 4 or more authors: (Ding et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Linguistics
ISSN (print)0022-2267
ISSN (online)1469-7742

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