How to format your references using the Journal of Linguistics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Linguistics (JoL). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schooler, Jonathan. 2011. Unpublished results hide the decline effect. Nature 470(7335), 437.
A journal article with 2 authors
Simmons, N. A. & H. Gurrola. 2000. Multiple seismic discontinuities near the base of the transition zone in the Earth’s mantle. Nature 405(6786), 559–562.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gómez, José M., Miguel Verdú & Francisco Perfectti. 2010. Ecological interactions are evolutionarily conserved across the entire tree of life. Nature 465(7300), 918–921.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Sabari, Benjamin R., Alessandra Dall’Agnese, Ann Boija, Isaac A. Klein, Eliot L. Coffey, Krishna Shrinivas, Brian J. Abraham, et al. 2018. Coactivator condensation at super-enhancers links phase separation and gene control. Science (New York, N.Y.) 361(6400).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dixon, C. Scott. 2010. Protestants. Oxford, UK: wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Wang, Qian (ed.). 2012. Bones, Genetics, and Behavior of Rhesus Macaques: Macaca Mulatta of Cayo Santiago and Beyond (Developments in Primatology: Progress and Prospects). 1st ed. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Chalopin, Jérémie, Emmanuel Godard & Yves Métivier. 2008. Local Terminations and Distributed Computability in Anonymous Networks. In Gadi Taubenfeld (ed.), Distributed Computing: 22nd International Symposium, DISC 2008, Arcachon, France, September 22-24, 2008. Proceedings (Lecture Notes in Computer Science), 47–62. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Linguistics.

Blog post
Hale, Tom. 2017. Why Boston Schools Are Not Using This Map Anymore. IFLScience. IFLScience. (30 October, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1988. Production and Quality of Education Information. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
McPeek, Samuel E. 2017. Religious Rhetoric and the Radio: The Sermons of Rev. Dr. Oswald C.J. Hoffmann, International Lutheran Hour Speaker, 1955-1985. University of Louisiana Doctoral dissertation.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky, Sophia. 2001. Distance Learning: RussiaIs Reaching Out. New York Times.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Brody 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Sumper 2002; Zamir 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Simmons & Gurrola 2000)
  • Three authors: (Gómez, Verdú & Perfectti 2010)
  • 4 or more authors: (Hoffmann et al. 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Linguistics
ISSN (print)0022-2267
ISSN (online)1469-7742

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