How to format your references using the Journal of Linguistics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Linguistics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Noonan, David. 2014. Language: Lost in translation. Nature 508(7494), S4-5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Xi, Rongwen & Ting Xie. 2005. Stem cell self-renewal controlled by chromatin remodeling factors. Science (New York, N.Y.) 310(5753), 1487–1489.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rideout, W. M., 3rd, K. Eggan & R. Jaenisch. 2001. Nuclear cloning and epigenetic reprogramming of the genome. Science (New York, N.Y.) 293(5532), 1093–1098.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Karol, K. G., R. M. McCourt, M. T. Cimino & C. F. Delwiche. 2001. The closest living relatives of land plants. Science (New York, N.Y.) 294(5550), 2351–2353.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wexler, Steve, Jeffrey Shaffer & Andy Cotgreave. 2017. The Big Book of Dashboards. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
McKeown, Rosalyn & Victor Nolet (eds.). 2013. Schooling for Sustainable Development in Canada and the United States (Schooling for Sustainable Development). . Vol. 4. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Jögi, Annika. 2015. Tumour Hypoxia and the Hypoxia-Inducible Transcription Factors: Key Players in Cancer Progression and Metastasis. In Sybille Mazurek & Maria Shoshan (eds.), Tumor Cell Metabolism: Pathways, Regulation and Biology, 65–98. Vienna: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Linguistics.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. Banned Diet Pill Reverses Type 2 Diabetes And Fatty Liver In Rats. IFLScience. IFLScience. (30 October, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1979. Selected FCC Regulatory Policies: Their Purpose and Consequences for Commercial Radio and TV. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Martinez, Carmen. 2010. An after-school program at the middle school level for at-risk youth. California State University, Long Beach Doctoral dissertation.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Neuman, William. 2015. Defying U.S., Colombia Ends a Drug Tactic. New York Times.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Noonan 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Xi & Xie 2005; Noonan 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Xi & Xie 2005)
  • Three authors: (Rideout, Eggan & Jaenisch 2001)
  • 4 or more authors: (Karol et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Linguistics
ISSN (print)0022-2267
ISSN (online)1469-7742

Other styles