How to format your references using the Journal of Linguistics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Linguistics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Zellers, Darlene. 2005. Scientists and societies. Building a regional postdoc community. Nature 433(7022), 178.
A journal article with 2 authors
Thompson, William G. & Steven L. Goldstein. 2005. Open-system coral ages reveal persistent suborbital sea-level cycles. Science (New York, N.Y.) 308(5720), 401–404.
A journal article with 3 authors
Fändrich, M., M. A. Fletcher & C. M. Dobson. 2001. Amyloid fibrils from muscle myoglobin. Nature 410(6825), 165–166.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Pupo, Gabriele, Francesco Ibba, David M. H. Ascough, Anna Chiara Vicini, Paolo Ricci, Kirsten E. Christensen, Lukas Pfeifer, et al. 2018. Asymmetric nucleophilic fluorination under hydrogen bonding phase-transfer catalysis. Science (New York, N.Y.) 360(6389), 638–642.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Datta, T. K. 2010. Seismic Analysis of Structures. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Adebajo, Adewale, Wolf-Henning Boehncke, Dafna D. Gladman & Philip J. Mease (eds.). 2016. Psoriatic Arthritis and Psoriasis: Pathology and Clinical Aspects. 1st ed. 2016. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Fallahpour, Mehdi & David Megías. 2009. Reversible Data Hiding Based On H.264/AVC Intra Prediction. In Hyoung-Joong Kim, Stefan Katzenbeisser & Anthony T. S. Ho (eds.), Digital Watermarking: 7th International Workshop, IWDW 2008, Busan, Korea, November 10-12, 2008. Selected Papers (Lecture Notes in Computer Science), 52–60. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Linguistics.

Blog post
Hale, Tom. 2015. Someone Built A Real-Life Thor’s Hammer That Can Only Be Lifted By Its Creator. IFLScience. IFLScience. (30 October, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2016. Homeland Security: Weak Oversight of Human Resources Information Technology Investment Needs Considerable Improvement. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dhokar, Abhishek. 2015. LabVIEW based simulation and animation for the vibration control of active mass damper. California State University, Long Beach Doctoral dissertation.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Ortved, John. 2017. Shifting Focus To Men’s Shoes. New York Times.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Zellers 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Thompson & Goldstein 2005; Zellers 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Thompson & Goldstein 2005)
  • Three authors: (Fändrich, Fletcher & Dobson 2001)
  • 4 or more authors: (Pupo et al. 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Linguistics
ISSN (print)0022-2267
ISSN (online)1469-7742

Other styles