How to format your references using the Journal of Linguistics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Linguistics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Moore, Pete. 2005. Photocopiers for DNA. Nature 435(7039), 237.
A journal article with 2 authors
Fields, R. Douglas & Beth Stevens-Graham. 2002. New insights into neuron-glia communication. Science (New York, N.Y.) 298(5593), 556–562.
A journal article with 3 authors
Johnson, Dominic D. P., Pavel Stopka & Stephen Knights. 2003. Sociology: The puzzle of human cooperation. Nature 421(6926), 911–2; discussion 912.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Mayor, Ugo, Nicholas R. Guydosh, Christopher M. Johnson, J. Günter Grossmann, Satoshi Sato, Gouri S. Jas, Stefan M. V. Freund, Darwin O. V. Alonso, Valerie Daggett & Alan R. Fersht. 2003. The complete folding pathway of a protein from nanoseconds to microseconds. Nature 421(6925), 863–867.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Goodman, Anthony H. 2012. Rehabilitating and Resettling Offenders in the Community. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Zorn, Isabel, Susanne Maass, Els Rommes, Carola Schirmer & Heidi Schelhowe (eds.). 2007. Gender Designs IT: Construction and Deconstruction of Information Society Technology. Wiesbaden: VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften.
A chapter in an edited book
Acar, Ugur & Atilla Bayer. 2016. Current Concepts and Management of Severely Traumatized Tissues in the Inner Coatings (the Anterior Segment: Anterior Chamber Structures, the Iris, and the Lens) of the Globe: Non-mechanical Injuries. In Güngör Sobacı (ed.), Current Concepts and Management of Eye Injuries, 65–73. London: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Linguistics.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, Jonathan. 2017. NASA’s Mission To Europa Now Has An Official Name. IFLScience. IFLScience. (30 October, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1982. Trends in Evaluation. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Leonard, James M. 2001. The Effect of Manufacturing Establishments on Local Area per Capita Personal Income in the U.S. 1967-1990. University of Cincinnati Doctoral dissertation.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, Linda. 2008. No Ruling Means No Change For Fantasy Baseball Leagues. New York Times.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Moore 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Fields & Stevens-Graham 2002; Moore 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Fields & Stevens-Graham 2002)
  • Three authors: (Johnson, Stopka & Knights 2003)
  • 4 or more authors: (Mayor et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Linguistics
ISSN (print)0022-2267
ISSN (online)1469-7742

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