How to format your references using the Journal of Linguistics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Linguistics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Klibanov, A. M. 2001. Improving enzymes by using them in organic solvents. Nature 409(6817), 241–246.
A journal article with 2 authors
Fairchild, Amy L. & Ronald Bayer. 2004. Public health. Ethics and the conduct of public health surveillance. Science (New York, N.Y.) 303(5658), 631–632.
A journal article with 3 authors
Dharmasiri, Nihal, Sunethra Dharmasiri & Mark Estelle. 2005. The F-box protein TIR1 is an auxin receptor. Nature 435(7041), 441–445.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Zhang, Bo, Jianjun Wang, Zhiping Liu & Xianren Zhang. 2014. Beyond Cassie equation: local structure of heterogeneous surfaces determines the contact angles of microdroplets. Scientific reports 4, 5822.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chow, Shein-Chung & Jen-Pei Liu. 2005. Design and Analysis of Clinical Trials: Concepts and Methodologies (Wiley Series in Probability and Statistics). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Colombo, Bruno & Roberto Teggi (eds.). 2014. Vestibular Migraine and Related Syndromes. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Ellis, Peter. 2010. The Ethics of Taking Sides. In Chris Roche & Keith Horton (eds.), Ethical Questions and International NGOs: An exchange between Philosophers and NGOs (Library of Ethics and Applied Philosophy), 65–85. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Linguistics.

Blog post
Davis, Josh. 2017. Carbon Emissions In The UK The Lowest Since 1894. IFLScience. IFLScience. (30 October, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2012. Electronic Government Act: Agencies Have Implemented Most Provisions, but Key Areas of Attention Remain. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chung, Yu-Kuang. 2010. A comparison of particle swarm optimization algorithms in data clustering. California State University, Long Beach Doctoral dissertation.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wines, Michael & Timothy Williams. 2014. Huge Leak of Coal Ash Slows at North Carolina Power Plant. New York Times.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Klibanov 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Klibanov 2001; Fairchild & Bayer 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Fairchild & Bayer 2004)
  • Three authors: (Dharmasiri, Dharmasiri & Estelle 2005)
  • 4 or more authors: (Zhang et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Linguistics
ISSN (print)0022-2267
ISSN (online)1469-7742

Other styles