How to format your references using the Journal of Linguistics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Linguistics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wald, Chelsea. 2015. Neuroscience: The aesthetic brain. Nature 526(7572), S2-3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Falzarano, Darryl & Heinz Feldmann. 2015. Virology. Delineating Ebola entry. Science (New York, N.Y.) 347(6225), 947–948.
A journal article with 3 authors
Makarieva, Anastassia M., Victor G. Gorshkov & Bai-Lian Li. 2009. Comment on “Energy uptake and allocation during ontogeny.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 325(5945), 1206; author reply 1206.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Condon, Marty A., Sonja J. Scheffer, Matthew L. Lewis & Susan M. Swensen. 2008. Hidden neotropical diversity: greater than the sum of its parts. Science (New York, N.Y.) 320(5878), 928–931.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lawless, Harry T. 2013. Quantitative Sensory Analysis. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons.
An edited book
Schramm, Johannes (ed.). 2014. Advances and Technical Standards in Neurosurgery: Volume 41 (Advances and Technical Standards in Neurosurgery). . Vol. 41. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Bakhtadze, Nataliya N. & Vladimir A. Lototsky. 2016. Knowledge-Based Models of Nonlinear Systems Based on Inductive Learning. In Przemysław Różewski, Dmitry Novikov, Natalia Bakhtadze & Oleg Zaikin (eds.), New Frontiers in Information and Production Systems Modelling and Analysis: Incentive Mechanisms, Competence Management, Knowledge-based Production (Intelligent Systems Reference Library), 85–104. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Linguistics.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, Jonathan. 2017. This Technique Could Detect Radiation Up To 1 Kilometer Away. IFLScience. IFLScience. (30 October, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2006. Space Acquisitions: DOD Needs Additional Knowledge as it Embarks on a New Approach for Transformational Satellite Communications System. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Woerner, Lucinda C. 2010. Complicated grief: A case study of pathological bereavement. Northcentral University Doctoral dissertation.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, Linda. 2007. Case Touches a 2nd Amendment Nerve. New York Times.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wald 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Falzarano & Feldmann 2015; Wald 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Falzarano & Feldmann 2015)
  • Three authors: (Makarieva, Gorshkov & Li 2009)
  • 4 or more authors: (Condon et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Linguistics
ISSN (print)0022-2267
ISSN (online)1469-7742

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