How to format your references using the Journal of Linguistics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Linguistics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Carpenter, Siri. 2008. Science careers. Finding industry funding. Science (New York, N.Y.) 319(5869), 1550–1551.
A journal article with 2 authors
Weeds, A. & S. Yeoh. 2001. Structure. Action at the Y-branch. Science (New York, N.Y.) 294(5547), 1660–1661.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sparrow, Betsy, Jenny Liu & Daniel M. Wegner. 2011. Google effects on memory: cognitive consequences of having information at our fingertips. Science (New York, N.Y.) 333(6043), 776–778.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Rieger, Mary A., Michael Lamond, Christopher Preston, Stephen B. Powles & Richard T. Roush. 2002. Pollen-mediated movement of herbicide resistance between commercial canola fields. Science (New York, N.Y.) 296(5577), 2386–2388.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ancheyta, Jorge. 2016. Deactivation of Heavy Oil Hydroprocessing Catalysts. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Schein, Moshe & Paul N. Rogers (eds.). 2007. Chirurgia addominale d’urgenza: il buon senso di Schein: Guida pratica per sopravvivere nella trincea delle urgenze chirurgiche. Milano: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Benirschke, Kurt, Graham J. Burton & Rebecca N. Baergen. 2012. Early Development of the Human Placenta. In Graham J. Burton & Rebecca N. Baergen (eds.), Pathology of the Human Placenta, 41–53. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Linguistics.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. 20-Year-Old To Launch World’s First Ocean Cleaning System In 2016. IFLScience. IFLScience. (30 October, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2014. Child Welfare: Federal Agencies Can Better Support State Efforts to Prevent and Respond to Sexual Abuse by School Personnel. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lord, Vanessa. 2015. Defining eating disorder recovery: A qualitative approach. California State University, Long Beach Doctoral dissertation.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Belson, Ken & Mary Pilon. 2013. Technology Firm From India Will Be New York Marathon Title Sponsor. New York Times.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Carpenter 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Weeds & Yeoh 2001; Carpenter 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Weeds & Yeoh 2001)
  • Three authors: (Sparrow, Liu & Wegner 2011)
  • 4 or more authors: (Rieger et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Linguistics
ISSN (print)0022-2267
ISSN (online)1469-7742

Other styles