How to format your references using the Avian Conservation and Ecology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Avian Conservation and Ecology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ray, L. B. 2008. Cell signaling. Getting your loops straight. Introduction. Science (New York, N.Y.) 322:389.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bray, P. S., and K. B. Anderson. 2009. Identification of Carboniferous (320 million years old) class Ic amber. Science (New York, N.Y.) 326:132–134.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jansen, V. A. A., A. Mashanova, and S. Petrovskii. 2012. Comment on “Lévy walks evolve through interaction between movement and environmental complexity.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 335:918; author reply 918.
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Bjørnstad, O. N., M. Peltonen, A. M. Liebhold, and W. Baltensweiler. 2002. Waves of larch budmoth outbreaks in the European alps. Science (New York, N.Y.) 298:1020–1023.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tripathi, N., R. S. Singh, and C. D. Hills. 2016. Reclamation of Mine-Impacted Land for Ecosystem Recovery. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Jonker, W., and M. Petković (Eds.). 2011. Secure Data Management: 8th VLDB Workshop, SDM 2011, Seattle, WA, USA, September 2, 2011, Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Sousa, L. C., C. F. Castro, and C. C. António. 2012. Blood Flow Simulation and Applications. Pages 67–86 in R. M. Natal Jorge, J. M. R. S. Tavares, M. Pinotti Barbosa, and A. P. Slade, editors. Technologies for Medical Sciences. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Avian Conservation and Ecology.

Blog post
Andrew, D. 2015, October 5. Watch Food Being Digested In This Fascinating And Gross Video. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1977. Space Transportation System: Past, Present, Future. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mcfarlane, N. 2010. Information power efficiency tradeoffs in mixed signal CMOS circuits. Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Greenhouse, L. 2008, January 23. Justices Broaden Immunity For Officers. New York Times:A16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ray 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Ray 2008, Bray and Anderson 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bray and Anderson 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Bjørnstad et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleAvian Conservation and Ecology
AbbreviationAvian Conserv. Ecol.
ISSN (online)1712-6568
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Nature and Landscape Conservation

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