How to format your references using the Avian Conservation and Ecology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Avian Conservation and Ecology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gilbert, D. 2011. Buried by bad decisions. Nature 474:275–277.
A journal article with 2 authors
Paukner, C., and K. K. K. Koziol. 2014. Ultra-pure single wall carbon nanotube fibres continuously spun without promoter. Scientific reports 4:3903.
A journal article with 3 authors
Depew, M. J., T. Lufkin, and J. L. R. Rubenstein. 2002. Specification of jaw subdivisions by Dlx genes. Science (New York, N.Y.) 298:381–385.
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Liu, C., Y. Xiao, X. Li, B. Oppert, B. E. Tabashnik, and K. Wu. 2014. Cis-mediated down-regulation of a trypsin gene associated with Bt resistance in cotton bollworm. Scientific reports 4:7219.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Abd-El-Barr, M., and H. El-Rewini. 2004. Fundamentals of Computer Organization and Architecture. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Rieves, R. A. 2012. Investor Relations for the Emerging Company. Page (J. Lefebvre, Ed.)Second Edition. Palgrave Macmillan US, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Reddy, S., K. Shilton, J. Burke, D. Estrin, M. Hansen, and M. Srivastava. 2009. Using Context Annotated Mobility Profiles to Recruit Data Collectors in Participatory Sensing. Pages 52–69 in T. Choudhury, A. Quigley, T. Strang, and K. Suginuma, editors. Location and Context Awareness: 4th International Symposium, LoCA 2009 Tokyo, Japan, May 7-8, 2009 Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Avian Conservation and Ecology.

Blog post
Taub, B. 2016, December 28. Incredible New Photographs Show Uncontacted Amazonian Tribe In All Their Glory. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1999. Year 2000 Computing Challenge: DEA Has Developed Plans and Established Controls for Business Continuity Planning. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dovale, M. J. 2013. Postwar japan’s hybrid modernity of in-betweenness: Historical, literary, and social perspectives. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J. 2017, October 6. Dominican Players Hone Skills With AidOf Broomsticks. New York Times:SP1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gilbert 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Gilbert 2011, Paukner and Koziol 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Paukner and Koziol 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Liu et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleAvian Conservation and Ecology
AbbreviationAvian Conserv. Ecol.
ISSN (online)1712-6568
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Nature and Landscape Conservation

Other styles