How to format your references using the Avian Conservation and Ecology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Avian Conservation and Ecology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dunne, M. 2006. Applied physics. Laser-driven particle accelerators. Science (New York, N.Y.) 312:374–376.
A journal article with 2 authors
Minkov, M., and V. Savona. 2014. Automated optimization of photonic crystal slab cavities. Scientific reports 4:5124.
A journal article with 3 authors
Carrez, P., D. Ferré, and P. Cordier. 2007. Implications for plastic flow in the deep mantle from modelling dislocations in MgSiO3 minerals. Nature 446:68–70.
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Baglione, V., D. Canestrari, J. M. Marcos, and J. Ekman. 2003. Kin selection in cooperative alliances of carrion crows. Science (New York, N.Y.) 300:1947–1949.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Declerck, P. 2012. Discrete Event Systems in Dioid Algebra and Conventional Algebra. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ USA.
An edited book
Matta, A., and Q. Semeraro (Eds.). 2005. Design of Advanced Manufacturing Systems: Models for Capacity Planning in Advanced Manufacturing Systems. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Brown, J. J., I. Cybulska, T. Chaturvedi, and M. H. Thomsen. 2014. Halophytes for the Production of Liquid Biofuels. Pages 67–72 in M. A. Khan, B. Böer, M. Öztürk, T. Z. A. Abdessalaam, M. Clüsener-Godt, and B. Gul, editors. Sabkha Ecosystems: Volume IV: Cash Crop Halophyte and Biodiversity Conservation. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Avian Conservation and Ecology.

Blog post
Andrew, E. 2014, December 2. HIV Could Be Evolving Into A Less Deadly Form. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1990. Information Technology: DOD’s Federal Logistics Data on Compact Disc Program. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Edwards, K. 2017. Autism Spectrum Disorder and Social Narratives: Personalization of Delivery via Brief Experimental Analysis. Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, M. 1992, September 13. THE 1992 CAMPAIGN: Behind the Scenes; Though Advisers Differ, Clinton’s in Tune With All. New York Times:11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Dunne 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Dunne 2006, Minkov and Savona 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Minkov and Savona 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Baglione et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleAvian Conservation and Ecology
AbbreviationAvian Conserv. Ecol.
ISSN (online)1712-6568
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Nature and Landscape Conservation

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