How to format your references using the Avian Conservation and Ecology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Avian Conservation and Ecology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Keasling, J. D. 2010. Manufacturing molecules through metabolic engineering. Science (New York, N.Y.) 330:1355–1358.
A journal article with 2 authors
Silver, R. A., and R. T. Kanichay. 2008. Neuroscience. Refreshing connections. Science (New York, N.Y.) 320:183–184.
A journal article with 3 authors
Robertson, W. H., E. G. Diken, and M. A. Johnson. 2003. Chemistry. Snapshots of water at work. Science (New York, N.Y.) 301:320–321.
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Kawabuchi, M., Y. Satomi, T. Takao, Y. Shimonishi, S. Nada, K. Nagai, A. Tarakhovsky, and M. Okada. 2000. Transmembrane phosphoprotein Cbp regulates the activities of Src-family tyrosine kinases. Nature 404:999–1003.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Saleh, J. H., and J.-F. Castet. 2011. Spacecraft Reliability and Multi-State Failures. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Johnson, R. 2016. Nonautonomous Linear Hamiltonian Systems: Oscillation, Spectral Theory and Control. Page (R. Obaya, S. Novo, C. Núñez, and R. Fabbri, Eds.)1st ed. 2016. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Kuchmann-Beauger, N., and M.-A. Aufaure. 2011. Structured Data-Based Q&A System Using Surface Patterns. Pages 37–48 in H. Christiansen, G. D. Tré, A. Yazici, S. Zadrozny, T. Andreasen, and H. L. Larsen, editors. Flexible Query Answering Systems: 9th International Conference, FQAS 2011, Ghent, Belgium, October 26-28, 2011 Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Avian Conservation and Ecology.

Blog post
Hale, T. 2016, May 8. “Scarface,” The Beloved Bear Of Yellowstone Park, Has Been Killed. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1977. NASA Report May Overstate the Economic Benefits of Research and Development Spending. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bryant, T. L. 2017. The Influence of High School Preparation on Black Male Students’ Ability to Succeed at the Post-Secondary Level. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Eligon, J., and S. Cacciola. 2016, September 12. Player’s Protest Revives a Spirit of Activism From the Days of Ali. New York Times:A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Keasling 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Silver and Kanichay 2008, Keasling 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Silver and Kanichay 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Kawabuchi et al. 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleAvian Conservation and Ecology
AbbreviationAvian Conserv. Ecol.
ISSN (online)1712-6568
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Nature and Landscape Conservation

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