How to format your references using the Avian Conservation and Ecology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Avian Conservation and Ecology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Klein, C. A. 2008. Cancer. The metastasis cascade. Science (New York, N.Y.) 321:1785–1787.
A journal article with 2 authors
Byers, J., and S. Dunn. 2012. Bateman in nature: predation on offspring reduces the potential for sexual selection. Science (New York, N.Y.) 338:802–804.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bilham, R., V. K. Gaur, and P. Molnar. 2001. Earthquakes. Himalayan seismic hazard. Science (New York, N.Y.) 293:1442–1444.
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Park, H.-S., S.-H. Nam, J. K. Lee, C. N. Yoon, B. Mannervik, S. J. Benkovic, and H.-S. Kim. 2006. Design and evolution of new catalytic activity with an existing protein scaffold. Science (New York, N.Y.) 311:535–538.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sundararajan, D. 2015. Discretewavelet Transform. John Wiley & Sons, Singapore Pte. Ltd, Singapore.
An edited book
Nicolini, P., M. Kaminski, J. Mureika, and M. Bleicher (Eds.). 2016. 1st Karl Schwarzschild Meeting on Gravitational Physics1st ed. 2016. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Sanfilippo, J. S., and R. Schwarz. 2007. Lesbian Patients. Pages 75–87 in R. P. Smith, editor. Primary Care in Obstetrics and Gynecology: A Handbook for Clinicians. Springer, New York, NY.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Avian Conservation and Ecology.

Blog post
Andrews, R. 2016, July 7. Cats Are Living Longer And Healthier Lives Than Ever Before. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1995. Space Shuttle: NASA Must Reduce Costs Further to Operate Within Future Projected Funds. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Schroeder, M. 2017. Investigating the Learnability of a Rogue Grammar: Null Subject Parameter Resetting in Second Language Acquisition. Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Baker, P. 2017, July 18. Reluctantly, Trump Recertifies Iran’s Compliance With Nuclear Agreement. New York Times:A7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Klein 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Klein 2008, Byers and Dunn 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Byers and Dunn 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Park et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleAvian Conservation and Ecology
AbbreviationAvian Conserv. Ecol.
ISSN (online)1712-6568
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Nature and Landscape Conservation

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