How to format your references using the Avian Conservation and Ecology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Avian Conservation and Ecology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bürger, G. 2007. Comment on “The spatial extent of 20th-century warmth in the context of the past 1200 years.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 316:1844; author reply 1844.
A journal article with 2 authors
Trenberth, K. E., and B. L. Otto-Bliesner. 2003. Paleoclimate. Toward integrated reconstruction of past climates. Science (New York, N.Y.) 300:589–590.
A journal article with 3 authors
Applegate, P. J., T. V. Lowell, and R. B. Alley. 2008. Comment on “Absence of cooling in New Zealand and the adjacent ocean during the Younger Dryas chronozone.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 320:746; author reply 746.
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Ke, J., X. Li, Q. Zhao, Y. Hou, and J. Chen. 2014. Ultrasensitive quantum dot fluorescence quenching assay for selective detection of mercury ions in drinking water. Scientific reports 4:5624.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ziska, L. H., and J. S. Dukes. 2010. Weed Biology and Climate Change. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Rossi, M., M. Sasso, N. Connesson, R. Singh, A. DeWald, D. Backman, and P. Gloeckner (Eds.). 2014. Residual Stress, Thermomechanics & Infrared Imaging, Hybrid Techniques and Inverse Problems, Volume 8: Proceedings of the 2013 Annual Conference on Experimental and Applied Mechanics. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Daly, E. J. 2005. Outlook on Space Weather Effects on Spacecraft. Pages 91–108 in I. A. Daglis, editor. Effects of Space Weather on Technology Infrastructure. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Avian Conservation and Ecology.

Blog post
Andrew, E. 2015, January 30. Leaked Publication Suggests BICEP2 Big Bang Discovery Was Wrong. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1994. Use of Corps Electronic Signature System. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Collins, L. 2009. A community risk assessment of the 90062 zip code. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, S. 2003, February 16. Beware of the Westminster Kennel’s Best in Show. New York Times:42.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bürger 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Trenberth and Otto-Bliesner 2003, Bürger 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Trenberth and Otto-Bliesner 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Ke et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleAvian Conservation and Ecology
AbbreviationAvian Conserv. Ecol.
ISSN (online)1712-6568
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Nature and Landscape Conservation

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