How to format your references using the Avian Conservation and Ecology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Avian Conservation and Ecology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wilcken, B. 2013. Medicine. Newborn screening: gaps in the evidence. Science (New York, N.Y.) 342:197–198.
A journal article with 2 authors
Engelberg-Kulka, H., and R. Hazan. 2003. Microbiology. Cannibals defy starvation and avoid sporulation. Science (New York, N.Y.) 301:467–468.
A journal article with 3 authors
Shiu, R.-F., W.-C. Chin, and C.-L. Lee. 2014. Carbonaceous particles reduce marine microgel formation. Scientific reports 4:5856.
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Niu, F., P. G. Silver, R. M. Nadeau, and T. V. McEvilly. 2003. Migration of seismic scatterers associated with the 1993 Parkfield aseismic transient event. Nature 426:544–548.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Drake, P. P., and F. J. Fabozzi. 2010. The Basics of Finance. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
St. John, J. C. (Ed.). 2013. Mitochondrial DNA, Mitochondria, Disease and Stem Cells. Humana Press, Totowa, NJ.
A chapter in an edited book
Smart, W. D. 2007. Writing Code in the Field: Implications for Robot Software Development. Pages 93–105 in D. Brugali, editor. Software Engineering for Experimental Robotics. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Avian Conservation and Ecology.

Blog post
Andrew, E. 2014, September 19. 10 Creatures that Are Nearly Indestructible. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1991. Tax Systems Modernization: Private Sector Modernization Efforts IRS May Want to Examine. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Graves, K. A. 2012. An Exploration of Organizational Commitment among Generation X Leaders. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Strauss, B. 2016, September 28. Like Father, Like Son. Like the Cubs? No Way! New York Times:B11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wilcken 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Engelberg-Kulka and Hazan 2003, Wilcken 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Engelberg-Kulka and Hazan 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Niu et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleAvian Conservation and Ecology
AbbreviationAvian Conserv. Ecol.
ISSN (online)1712-6568
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Nature and Landscape Conservation

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