How to format your references using the Inverse Problems in Science and Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Inverse Problems in Science and Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Taylor T. Explanatory tyranny. Nature. 2001;411:419.
A journal article with 2 authors
Harpole WS, Tilman D. Grassland species loss resulting from reduced niche dimension. Nature. 2007;446:791–793.
A journal article with 3 authors
Nahm H-H, Park CH, Kim Y-S. Bistability of hydrogen in ZnO: origin of doping limit and persistent photoconductivity. Sci Rep. 2014;4:4124.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Schulze DJ, Harte B, Valley JW, et al. Extreme crustal oxygen isotope signatures preserved in coesite in diamond. Nature. 2003;423:68–70.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hens H. Building Physics - Heat, Air and Moisture. Berlin, Germany: Ernst & Sohn Verlag für Architektur und technische Wissenschaften GmbH & Co. KG; 2012.
An edited book
Wortsman X, editor. Dermatologic Ultrasound with Clinical and Histologic Correlations. New York, NY: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Freiberg A, Trinkunas G. Unraveling the Hidden Nature of Antenna Excitations. In: Laisk A, Nedbal L, Govindjee, editors. Photosynthesis in silico: Understanding Complexity from Molecules to Ecosystems. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2009. p. 55–82.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Inverse Problems in Science and Engineering.

Blog post
Andrew E. Bats Use Polarized Light To Calibrate Internal Compass [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Aviation Competition: Information on the Department of Transportation’s Proposed Policy. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1999. Report No.: RCED-99-225. .

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hutter-Thomas S. Sociocultural Evolution: An Examination of Unorthodox Elective Body Modification [Doctoral dissertation]. [Minneapolis, MN]: Capella University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh MW. Alabama Governor Fails to Prevent Jefferson County’s Record $4 Billion Bankruptcy Filing. New York Times. 2011 Nov 10;A16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInverse Problems in Science and Engineering
AbbreviationInverse Probl. Sci. Eng.
ISSN (print)1741-5977
ISSN (online)1741-5985
ScopeComputer Science Applications
General Engineering
Applied Mathematics

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