How to format your references using the Inverse Problems in Science and Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Inverse Problems in Science and Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Friedman WE. Hydatellaceae are water lilies with gymnospermous tendencies. Nature. 2008;453:94–97.
A journal article with 2 authors
Filippov A, Gorb SN. Frictional-anisotropy-based systems in biology: structural diversity and numerical model. Sci. Rep. 2013;3:1240.
A journal article with 3 authors
Stach S, Benard J, Giurfa M. Local-feature assembling in visual pattern recognition and generalization in honeybees. Nature. 2004;429:758–761.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Kirk EC, Cartmill M, Kay RF, et al. Comment on “Grasping primate origins.” Science. 2003;300:741; author reply 741.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kulinkovich OG. Cyclopropanes in Organic Synthesis. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2015.
An edited book
Cheng L, Zhang DY, Eble JN, editors. Molecular Genetic Pathology. 2nd ed. 2013. New York, NY: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Zaman R, Edmonson WW, Jha MK. Designing a Remote In Situ Soil Moisture Sensor Network for Small Satellite Data Retrieval. In: Uzochukwu GA, Schimmel K, Kabadi V, et al., editors. Proceedings of the 2013 National Conference on Advances in Environmental Science and Technology. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 35–46.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Inverse Problems in Science and Engineering.

Blog post
Andrew E. How Do Parasites Control Their Hosts? IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Computer Technology: Air Attack Warning System Cannot Process All Radar Track Data. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1991. Report No.: IMTEC-91-15. .

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Grandon J. The Distribution of Apiaceae in Lafayette and St. Martin Parishes [Doctoral dissertation]. [ Lafayette, LA]: University of Louisiana; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Otis J. In Debt, but Undaunted, a Mother Finds Her Home. New York Times. 2016 Dec 8;A28.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInverse Problems in Science and Engineering
AbbreviationInverse Probl. Sci. Eng.
ISSN (print)1741-5977
ISSN (online)1741-5985
ScopeComputer Science Applications
General Engineering
Applied Mathematics

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