How to format your references using the Inverse Problems in Science and Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Inverse Problems in Science and Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Le Quéré C. Journal club. An oceanographer marvels at the good timing of shrimp. Nature. 2009;461:1031.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ghosh A, Ganesan K. Policy: Rethink India’s energy strategy. Nature. 2015;521:156–157.
A journal article with 3 authors
Iwai M, Yokono M, Nakano A. Visualizing structural dynamics of thylakoid membranes. Sci. Rep. 2014;4:3768.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Desforges J-P, Hall A, McConnell B, et al. Predicting global killer whale population collapse from PCB pollution. Science. 2018;361:1373–1376.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wagner D, Balog E. Advanced Technical Analysis of ETFs. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2012.
An edited book
Wang PP, Ruan D, Kerre EE, editors. Fuzzy Logic: A Spectrum of Theoretical & Practical Issues. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
Hundt R. From Carbon to Clean—How to Attract Investment in Smart Grid Infrastructures. In: Noam EM, Pupillo LM, Kranz JJ, editors. Broadband Networks, Smart Grids and Climate Change. New York, NY: Springer; 2013. p. 39–45.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Inverse Problems in Science and Engineering.

Blog post
Andrew E. Unusual Organic Molecule Discovered At The Heart Of The Milky Way [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. America COMPETES Act: It Is Too Early to Evaluate Programs Long-Term Effectiveness, but Agencies Could Improve Reporting of High-Risk, High-Reward Research Priorities. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2010. Report No.: GAO-11-127R. .

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Luna AC. Analysis of the California Mental Health Services Act [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Stewart JB. Tough Times For Disciples Of Ayn Rand. New York Times. 2017 Jul 13;B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInverse Problems in Science and Engineering
AbbreviationInverse Probl. Sci. Eng.
ISSN (print)1741-5977
ISSN (online)1741-5985
ScopeComputer Science Applications
General Engineering
Applied Mathematics

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