How to format your references using the Australian Journal of Rural Health citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Australian Journal of Rural Health. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dance A. Health impact: Breathless. Nature. 2012 Sep 27;489(7417):S2-3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kiessling LL, Kraft MB. Chemistry. A path to complex carbohydrates. Science. 2013 Jul 26;341(6144):357–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
Staver AC, Archibald S, Levin SA. The global extent and determinants of savanna and forest as alternative biome states. Science. 2011 Oct 14;334(6053):230–2.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Wu H-C, Mauit O, Coileáin CÓ, Syrlybekov A, Khalid A, Mouti A, et al. Magnetic and transport properties of epitaxial thin film MgFe2O4 grown on MgO (100) by molecular beam epitaxy. Sci Rep. 2014 Nov 12;4:7012.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Weverka P. Microsoft® PowerPoint® 2010 All-in-One for Dummies®. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
Heintze H-J, Zwitter A, editors. International Law and Humanitarian Assistance: A Crosscut Through Legal Issues Pertaining to Humanitarianism. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011. IX, 141 p.
A chapter in an edited book
Singh DD. Bioinformatics—Structural Biology Interface. In: Fulekar MH, editor. Bioinformatics: Applications in Life and Environmental Sciences. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2009. p. 25–33.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Australian Journal of Rural Health.

Blog post
Taub B. This Is What Smoking Does To Your DNA [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Airport Improvement Program: Better Management Needed for Funds Provided Under Letters of Intent. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1994 Feb. Report No.: RCED-94-100.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nesbit PR. Uninhabited Aerial Vehicles and Structure from Motion: A fresh approach to photogrammetry [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney K. Baked Treats of Portugal. New York Times. 2010 Feb 21;NJ12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleAustralian Journal of Rural Health
AbbreviationAust. J. Rural Health
ISSN (print)1038-5282
ISSN (online)1440-1584
ScopeFamily Practice
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

Other styles