How to format your references using the Australian Journal of Rural Health citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Australian Journal of Rural Health. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Timusk T. Obituary: Bertram N. Brockhouse (1918-2003). Nature. 2003 Dec 11;426(6967):617.
A journal article with 2 authors
Géléoc GSG, Holt JR. Sound strategies for hearing restoration. Science. 2014 May 9;344(6184):1241062.
A journal article with 3 authors
Moser DE, Flowers RM, Hart RJ. Birth of the Kaapvaal tectosphere 3.08 billion years ago. Science. 2001 Jan 19;291(5503):465–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
DiLuzio WR, Turner L, Mayer M, Garstecki P, Weibel DB, Berg HC, et al. Escherichia coli swim on the right-hand side. Nature. 2005 Jun 30;435(7046):1271–4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Micouin P. Model-Based Systems Engineering. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2014.
An edited book
Nóbrega CEL, Brum NCL, editors. Desiccant-Assisted Cooling: Fundamentals and Applications. London: Springer; 2014. VII, 281 p. 178 illus., 42 illus. in color.
A chapter in an edited book
Hasselbalch J, Costa N, Blecken A. Investigating the Barriers to Sustainable Procurement in the United Nations. In: Klumpp M, Leeuw S de, Regattieri A, Souza R de, editors. Humanitarian Logistics and Sustainability. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. p. 67–86. (Lecture Notes in Logistics).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Australian Journal of Rural Health.

Blog post
Andrew E. New Antiviral Shows Potential Against Ebola [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. FCC: Facilitate Future Development of Paging Systems and Implementation of Section 309(j) of the Communications Act, and Competitive Bidding. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1997 Mar. Report No.: OGC-97-31.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ganatra VA. Impact of the media on body image and eating disorders [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Palmer E, Otis J. Lifting Hope, With Global Reach. New York Times. 2017 Apr 8;A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleAustralian Journal of Rural Health
AbbreviationAust. J. Rural Health
ISSN (print)1038-5282
ISSN (online)1440-1584
ScopeFamily Practice
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

Other styles