How to format your references using the Australian Journal of Rural Health citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Australian Journal of Rural Health. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dantzer B. Ecology. Mothers shape ecological communities. Science. 2015 Feb 20;347(6224):822–3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Zilles K, Amunts K. Neuroscience. Segregation and wiring in the brain. Science. 2012 Mar 30;335(6076):1582–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jones PD, Osborn TJ, Briffa KR. The evolution of climate over the last millennium. Science. 2001 Apr 27;292(5517):662–7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Meng X, Guler U, Kildishev AV, Fujita K, Tanaka K, Shalaev VM. Unidirectional spaser in symmetry-broken plasmonic core-shell nanocavity. Sci Rep. 2013 Feb 7;3:1241.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
New TR. Hymenoptera and Conservation. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2012.
An edited book
Dohi T, Nakagawa T, editors. Stochastic Reliability and Maintenance Modeling: Essays in Honor of Professor Shunji Osaki on his 70th Birthday. London: Springer; 2013. XXII, 360 p. (Springer Series in Reliability Engineering; vol. 9).
A chapter in an edited book
Mechler AI. Characterization and Analysis of Biomimetic Membranes. In: Martin DK, editor. Nanobiotechnology of Biomimetic Membranes. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2007. p. 89–126. (Fundamental Biomedical Technologies).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Australian Journal of Rural Health.

Blog post
Andrews R. Millions Of Penguins Are About To Be Smothered By A Volcanic Eruption [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Telecommunications: Broadband Deployment Plan Should Include Performance Goals and Measures to Guide Federal Investment. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2009 May. Report No.: GAO-09-494.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Fine JG. Magical Transformation or Illusion of Grandeur: The Development of Downtown West Palm Beach, 1985-2015 [Doctoral dissertation]. [Boca Raton, FL]: Florida Atlantic University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley B. A Historical Nightmare of Racism, Hypnotically Retold. New York Times. 2016 Nov 14;C2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleAustralian Journal of Rural Health
AbbreviationAust. J. Rural Health
ISSN (print)1038-5282
ISSN (online)1440-1584
ScopeFamily Practice
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

Other styles