How to format your references using the The American Journal of the Medical Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The American Journal of the Medical Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Macilwain C. Ticking the right boxes. Nature. 2006;439(7076):533.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wirth T, Bernatchez L. Genetic evidence against panmixia in the European eel. Nature. 2001;409(6823):1037-1040.
A journal article with 3 authors
Makovicky PJ, Apesteguía S, Agnolín FL. The earliest dromaeosaurid theropod from South America. Nature. 2005;437(7061):1007-1011.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Galy V, France-Lanord C, Beyssac O, Faure P, Kudrass H, Palhol F. Efficient organic carbon burial in the Bengal fan sustained by the Himalayan erosional system. Nature. 2007;450(7168):407-410.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bersuker IB. Electronic Structure and Properties of Transition Metal Compounds. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
Dörfler P. Flow-Induced Pulsation and Vibration in Hydroelectric Machinery: Engineer’s Guidebook for Planning, Design and Troubleshooting. (Sick M, Coutu A, eds.). Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Udwadia FE, Wanichanon T. A New Approach to the Tracking Control of Uncertain Nonlinear Multi-body Mechanical Systems. In: Jazar RN, Dai L, eds. Nonlinear Approaches in Engineering Applications 2. Springer; 2014:101-136.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The American Journal of the Medical Sciences.

Blog post
Davis J. Starbucks To Trial Recyclable Coffee Cups In The UK. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Year 2000 Computing Challenge: Much Biomedical Equipment Status Information Available, Yet Concerns Remain. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1999.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Yuan S. Aberrations of anamorphic optical systems. Published online 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kanter J. Europe Moves to Collect Taxes From Tech Giants. New York Times. October 4, 2017:B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleThe American Journal of the Medical Sciences
AbbreviationAm. J. Med. Sci.
ISSN (print)0002-9629
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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