How to format your references using the The American Journal of the Medical Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The American Journal of the Medical Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Whorton M. Structural biology: Calcium-activated proteins visualized. Nature. 2014;516(7530):176-178.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ward DJ, MacKay DJC. Artificial intelligence: fast hands-free writing by gaze direction. Nature. 2002;418(6900):838.
A journal article with 3 authors
Meng F, McGrath KP, Hoveyda AH. Multifunctional organoboron compounds for scalable natural product synthesis. Nature. 2014;513(7518):367-374.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Fernández ÁF, Sebti S, Wei Y, et al. Author Correction: Disruption of the beclin 1-BCL2 autophagy regulatory complex promotes longevity in mice. Nature. 2018;561(7723):E30.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Swatton PJ. Principles of Flight for Pilots. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2010.
An edited book
Jespers E. Noetherian Semigroup Algebras. Vol 7. (Okniński J, ed.). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
Coccolini F, D’Amico G, Montori G, Catena F, Fraga G, Ansaloni L. Laparoscopy in Gynecologic Emergencies. In: Agresta F, Campanile FC, Anania G, Bergamini C, eds. Emergency Laparoscopy. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016:55-71.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The American Journal of the Medical Sciences.

Blog post
Andrews R. We Are Now Closer To Making Artificial Life Than Ever Before. IFLScience. Published March 10, 2017. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Alternatives for the Bureau of Indian Affairs Public School Financial Assistance Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1979.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Fanelli RM. Effects of Urbanization and Infiltration-Based Watershed Restoration on the Hydro-Ecology of Headwater Streams. 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Calvert MF. A Hush Falls Where Rockets Once Roared. New York Times. April 21, 2013:BU8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleThe American Journal of the Medical Sciences
AbbreviationAm. J. Med. Sci.
ISSN (print)0002-9629
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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