How to format your references using the The American Journal of the Medical Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The American Journal of the Medical Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Reich J. Education research. Rebooting MOOC research. Science. 2015;347(6217):34-35.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hurtley SM, Pennisi E. Journey to the center of the cell. Introduction to special issue. Science. 2007;318(5855):1399.
A journal article with 3 authors
Religa TL, Sprangers R, Kay LE. Dynamic regulation of archaeal proteasome gate opening as studied by TROSY NMR. Science. 2010;328(5974):98-102.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Calamia V, Mateos J, Fernández-Puente P, et al. A pharmacoproteomic study confirms the synergistic effect of chondroitin sulfate and glucosamine. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5069.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Stokes DJ. Principles and Practice of Variable Pressure/Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (VP-ESEM). John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2008.
An edited book
Ramachandran B, Justice CO, Abrams MJ, eds. Land Remote Sensing and Global Environmental Change: NASA’s Earth Observing System and the Science of ASTER and MODIS. Vol 11. Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Bouziane MM, Bouiadjra BAB, Benseddiq N, Tabeti EMH, Serier B, Benbarek S. The Effects of Cracks Emanating from Micro-Void and Bone Inclusion in Cemented Total Hip Replacement. In: Ochsner A, Altenbach H, eds. Advances in Bio-Mechanical Systems and Materials. Advanced Structured Materials. Springer International Publishing; 2013:41-57.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The American Journal of the Medical Sciences.

Blog post
Andrew E. Ice Cream Gets Glow-In-The-Dark Makeover From Jellyfish Protein. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Reports Issued in October 1987. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1987.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Geiselman CK. Diet and Reproduction of Sympatric Nectar-Feeding Bat Species (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae) in French Guiana. Doctoral dissertation. Columbia University; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Dudziak ML. Obama’s Nixonian Precedent. New York Times. March 22, 2013:A29.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleThe American Journal of the Medical Sciences
AbbreviationAm. J. Med. Sci.
ISSN (print)0002-9629
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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