How to format your references using the Australian Journal of Earth Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Australian Journal of Earth Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Conard, N.J. 2009. A female figurine from the basal Aurignacian of Hohle Fels Cave in southwestern Germany. Nature 459, 248–252.
A journal article with 2 authors
Singh, S.C., and Macdonald, K.C. 2009. Mantle skewness and ridge segmentation. Nature 458, E11-2; author reply E12-3.
A journal article with 3 authors
Tripodi, M., Stepien, A.E., and Arber, S. 2011. Motor antagonism exposed by spatial segregation and timing of neurogenesis. Nature 479, 61–66.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Engelmann, J., Hanke, W., Mogdans, J., and Bleckmann, H. 2000. Hydrodynamic stimuli and the fish lateral line. Nature 408, 51–52.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Declerck, P. 2012. Discrete Event Systems in Dioid Algebra and Conventional Algebra (Hoboken, NJ USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.).
An edited book
Lin, C.Y.-Y. 2011. National Intellectual Capital: A Comparison of 40 Countries (New York, NY: Springer).
A chapter in an edited book
Ferrara, P., Fuchs, R., and Juhasz, U. 2012. TVAL+ : TVLA and Value Analyses Together. In Software Engineering and Formal Methods: 10th International Conference, SEFM 2012, Thessaloniki, Greece, October 1-5, 2012. Proceedings, G. Eleftherakis, M. Hinchey, and M. Holcombe, eds. (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer), pp. 63–77.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Australian Journal of Earth Sciences.

Blog post
Bedell-Pearce, H. 2017. Mysterious 15 Meter Sea Creature Found In Indonesia (IFLScience).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 2013. Rail Safety: Preliminary Observations on Federal Rail Safety Oversight and Positive Train Control Implementation (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Pulsifer, J.E. 2012. Learning from the Uighurs: Correcting Inadequate Due Process in Terrorist Financing Sanction Regimes. Doctoral dissertation. George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M.W. 2017. At Food Co-op, a Rift Over Its Pension Fund. New York Times B5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Conard, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Conard, 2009; Singh and Macdonald, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Singh and Macdonald, 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Engelmann et al., 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleAustralian Journal of Earth Sciences
AbbreviationAust. J. Earth Sci.
ISSN (print)0812-0099
ISSN (online)1440-0952
ScopeGeneral Earth and Planetary Sciences
Earth and Planetary Sciences (miscellaneous)
General Environmental Science

Other styles