How to format your references using the Australian Journal of Earth Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Australian Journal of Earth Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Oldroyd, G.E.D. 2007. Plant science. Nodules and hormones. Science (New York, N.Y.) 315, 52–53.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rubinoff, D., and Haines, W.P. 2005. Web-spinning caterpillar stalks snails. Science (New York, N.Y.) 309, 575.
A journal article with 3 authors
Yuan, F., Depew, R., and Soltis-Muth, C. 2014. Ecosystem regime change inferred from the distribution of trace metals in Lake Erie sediments. Scientific Reports 4, 7265.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Ternes, M., Lutz, C.P., Hirjibehedin, C.F., Giessibl, F.J., and Heinrich, A.J. 2008. The force needed to move an atom on a surface. Science (New York, N.Y.) 319, 1066–1069.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bradley, D. 2015. Managing Minor Musculoskeletal Injuries and Conditions (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.).
An edited book
2013. Automata, Languages, and Programming: 40th International Colloquium, ICALP 2013, Riga, Latvia, July 8-12, 2013, Proceedings, Part I (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer).
A chapter in an edited book
Ankerhold, J. 2015. Dissipation in Quantum Mechanical Systems: Where Is the System and Where Is the Reservoir? In Why More Is Different: Philosophical Issues in Condensed Matter Physics and Complex Systems, B. Falkenburg, and M. Morrison, eds. (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer), pp. 55–67.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Australian Journal of Earth Sciences.

Blog post
Andrew, E. 2015. A Teacher Uses Star Trek For Difficult Conversations On Race And Gender (IFLScience).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1995. Government Aircraft: Observations on Travel by Senior Officials (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kargbo, A.H. 2019. An Approach to Dynamic Resource Allocation for Electric Power Disaster Response Management. Doctoral dissertation. George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L. 2006. Supreme Court Allows Disabled Georgia Inmate to Proceed With Suit Against State. New York Times A27.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Oldroyd, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Rubinoff and Haines, 2005; Oldroyd, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rubinoff and Haines, 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Ternes et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleAustralian Journal of Earth Sciences
AbbreviationAust. J. Earth Sci.
ISSN (print)0812-0099
ISSN (online)1440-0952
ScopeGeneral Earth and Planetary Sciences
Earth and Planetary Sciences (miscellaneous)
General Environmental Science

Other styles