How to format your references using the CNS Drugs citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for CNS Drugs. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Layard R. Economics. Measuring subjective well-being. Science. 2010;327:534–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Bezanilla F, Perozo E. Structural biology. Force and voltage sensors in one structure. Science. 2002;298:1562–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Lee C-Y, Robinson KJ, Doe CQ. Lgl, Pins and aPKC regulate neuroblast self-renewal versus differentiation. Nature. 2006;439:594–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Nowacki M, Higgins BP, Maquilan GM, Swart EC, Doak TG, Landweber LF. A functional role for transposases in a large eukaryotic genome. Science. 2009;324:935–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Horton W. E-Learning by Design. San Francisco, CA, USA: Pfeiffer; 2011.
An edited book
1. Lhoneux E de. The European Stability Mechanism Before the Court of Justice of the European Union: Comments on the Pringle Case. Vassilopoulos CA, editor. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Canepa M. A Surface Scientist’s View on Spectroscopic Ellipsometry. In: Bracco G, Holst B, editors. Surface Science Techniques. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013. p. 99–135.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for CNS Drugs.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Teen Citizen Scientists are Giving us Inside Knowledge to Fight Disease [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Financial Market Preparedness: Significant Progress Has Been Made, but Pandemic Planning and Other Challenges Remain. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2007 Mar. Report No.: GAO-07-399.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Momenteller J. Optimization of Germination and Early Growth Conditions for Axenic Stanleya pinnata, a Potential Phytoremediation Candidate for Selenium [Doctoral dissertation]. [Edwardsville, IL]: Southern Illinois University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Yablonsky L. Logos à Go-Go. New York Times. 2011 Sep 18;ST3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCNS Drugs
AbbreviationCNS Drugs
ISSN (print)1172-7047
ISSN (online)1179-1934
ScopeClinical Neurology
Pharmacology (medical)
Psychiatry and Mental health

Other styles