How to format your references using the CNS Drugs citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for CNS Drugs. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Holmes JA. Ecology. How the Sahara became dry. Science. 2008;320:752–3.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Liu J, Diamond J. Science and government. Revolutionizing China’s environmental protection. Science. 2008;319:37–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Debruyne R, Schwarz C, Poinar H. Comment on “Whole-genome shotgun sequencing of mitochondria from ancient hair shafts.” Science. 2008;322:857; author reply 857.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Sokol AM, Cruet-Hennequart S, Pasero P, Carty MP. DNA polymerase η modulates replication fork progression and DNA damage responses in platinum-treated human cells. Sci Rep. 2013;3:3277.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Malina M. Delivering Sustainable Buildings. Oxford: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2013.
An edited book
1. Danieli GA, Minelli A, Pievani T, editors. Stephen J. Gould: The Scientific Legacy. Milano: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Fröhlich C. Solar Irradiance Variability Since 1978. In: Calisesi Y, Bonnet R-M, Gray L, Langen J, Lockwood M, editors. Solar Variability and Planetary Climates. New York, NY: Springer; 2007. p. 53–65.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for CNS Drugs.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Climate Change and Pollution Threaten Future Food Supplies [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Attack Warning: ADP and Communication Modernization Programs for Warning and Assessment. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1987 Aug. Report No.: IMTEC-87-23FS.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Mizokami SK. Fall risk factors among cane and walker users and non-users [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. La GORCE T. He Arrived as Reba McEntire. That Seemed to Work. New York Times. 2017 May 19;ST13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCNS Drugs
AbbreviationCNS Drugs
ISSN (print)1172-7047
ISSN (online)1179-1934
ScopeClinical Neurology
Pharmacology (medical)
Psychiatry and Mental health

Other styles