How to format your references using the Asthma Research and Practice citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Asthma Research and Practice. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Christianson DW. Chemistry. Roots of biosynthetic diversity. Science. 2007;316:60–1.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Kreitzer AC, Malenka RC. Endocannabinoid-mediated rescue of striatal LTD and motor deficits in Parkinson’s disease models. Nature. 2007;445:643–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Pavlidis I, Eberhardt NL, Levine JA. Seeing through the face of deception. Nature. 2002;415:35.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Chu K, Vojtchovský J, McMahon BH, Sweet RM, Berendzen J, Schlichting I. Structure of a ligand-binding intermediate in wild-type carbonmonoxy myoglobin. Nature. 2000;403:921–3.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Nicu L, Leïchlé T. Micro- and Nanoelectromechanical Biosensors. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
1. Prasad SK, Routray S, Khurana R, Sahni S, editors. Information Systems, Technology and Management: Third International Conference, ICISTM 2009, Ghaziabad, India, March 12-13, 2009. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Perlin HA, Lopes HS. A Genetic Programming Approach for Image Segmentation. In: Chatterjee A, Siarry P, editors. Computational Intelligence in Image Processing. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013. p. 71–90.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Asthma Research and Practice.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. What Colors Were Dinosaur Eggs? [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Information Technology Reform: Progress Made; More Needs to Be Done to Complete Actions and Measure Results. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2012 Apr. Report No.: GAO-12-461.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Baker NS. Bridging the Gap: Finding the Language of Soul [Doctoral dissertation]. [Carpinteria, CA]: Pacifica Graduate Institute; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Baker L. Reviving a Poor Neighborhood for Its Inhabitants. New York Times. 2010 Mar 24;B6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAsthma Research and Practice
AbbreviationAsthma Res. Pract.
ISSN (online)2054-7064

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