How to format your references using the Asthma Research and Practice citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Asthma Research and Practice. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Smaglik P. Salaries in the balance. Nature. 2009;457:750–1.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Eom Y-H, Jo H-H. Generalized friendship paradox in complex networks: the case of scientific collaboration. Sci Rep. 2014;4:4603.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Tsubogo T, Oyamada H, Kobayashi S. Multistep continuous-flow synthesis of (R)- and (S)-rolipram using heterogeneous catalysts. Nature. 2015;520:329–32.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Sun C, Ma M, Yang J, Zhang Y, Chen P, Huang W, et al. Phase-controlled synthesis of α-NiS nanoparticles confined in carbon nanorods for high performance supercapacitors. Sci Rep. 2014;4:7054.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Stolarski TA, Tobe S. Rolling Contacts. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2000.
An edited book
1. Giaoutzi M, Sapio B, editors. Recent Developments in Foresight Methodologies. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Foss S, Korshunov D, Zachary S. Maximum of Random Walk. In: Korshunov D, Zachary S, editors. An Introduction to Heavy-Tailed and Subexponential Distributions. New York, NY: Springer; 2011. p. 97–118.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Asthma Research and Practice.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Study Concludes That Female Hurricanes Are More Dangerous Than Male Hurricanes [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Aviation Finance: Observations on the Effects of Budget Uncertainty on FAA. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2015 Nov. Report No.: GAO-16-198R.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Li X. Two essays on “mining market basket data: Models and applications in marketing” [Doctoral dissertation]. [Washington, DC]: George Washington University; 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Poniewozik J. For Trump, Everything Is a Rating. New York Times. 2017 Jan 24;C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAsthma Research and Practice
AbbreviationAsthma Res. Pract.
ISSN (online)2054-7064

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