How to format your references using the Asthma Research and Practice citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Asthma Research and Practice. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Miller DM. Neuroscience. Synapses here and not everywhere. Science. 2007;317:907–8.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Haass C, Kahle PJ. Neuroscience. Parkin and its substrates. Science. 2001;293:224–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Smith MA, Brandt J, Shadmehr R. Motor disorder in Huntington’s disease begins as a dysfunction in error feedback control. Nature. 2000;403:544–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Lens L, Van Dongen S, Norris K, Githiru M, Matthysen E. Avian persistence in fragmented rainforest. Science. 2002;298:1236–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Qiu RG. Service Science. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2014.
An edited book
1. Zhu X. Business Trends in the Digital Era: Evolution of Theories and Applications. Song B, Ni Y, Ren Y, Li R, editors. Singapore: Springer; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Hsieh F-S, Lin J-B. Scheduling Patients in Hospitals Based on Multi-agent Systems. In: Ali M, Pan J-S, Chen S-M, Horng M-F, editors. Modern Advances in Applied Intelligence: 27th International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Other Applications of Applied Intelligent Systems, IEA/AIE 2014, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, June 3-6, 2014, Proceedings, Part I. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014. p. 32–42.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Asthma Research and Practice.

Blog post
1. Luntz S. Man With Severed Spinal Cord Walks Again After Cell Transplant. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Port Development: Sponsors Have Not Used User Fee Financing to Date. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1989 May. Report No.: RCED-89-125.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Fouts J. A mental health outreach program for adolescent gang members and at-risk youth: A grant writing project [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. St. John Kelly E. NEIGHBORHOOD REPORT: MARINE PARK -- UPDATE ; Mariners Are Still Riding High. New York Times. 1997 Oct 19;1410.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAsthma Research and Practice
AbbreviationAsthma Res. Pract.
ISSN (online)2054-7064

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