How to format your references using the Asthma Research and Practice citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Asthma Research and Practice. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Cummins PR. The potential for giant tsunamigenic earthquakes in the northern Bay of Bengal. Nature. 2007;449:75–8.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Walsh EC, Stainier DY. UDP-glucose dehydrogenase required for cardiac valve formation in zebrafish. Science. 2001;293:1670–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Jia Y, Sanchez JA, Wangh LJ. Kinetic hairpin oligonucleotide blockers for selective amplification of rare mutations. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5921.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Xie H, Wang H, Fu C, Liu Y, Snyder GJ, Zhao X, et al. The intrinsic disorder related alloy scattering in ZrNiSn half-Heusler thermoelectric materials. Sci Rep. 2014;4:6888.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Stevenson O. Neglected Children and Their Families. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing Ltd; 2008.
An edited book
1. Elsenbroich C, Anzola D, Gilbert N, editors. Social Dimensions of Organised Crime: Modelling the Dynamics of Extortion Rackets. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Warnecke T, Dohrmann P, Jürgens A, Rausch A, Pinkwart N. Collaborative Learning through Cooperative Design Using a Multitouch Table. In: Luo Y, editor. Cooperative Design, Visualization, and Engineering: 8th International Conference, CDVE 2011, Hong Kong, China, September 11-14, 2011 Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011. p. 22–9.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Asthma Research and Practice.

Blog post
1. Andrews R. Vegetables Grown On Mars Are Safe To Eat, According To Crop Experiment [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Patent and Trademark Office: Key Processes for Managing Automated Patent System Development Are Weak. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1993 Sep. Report No.: AIMD-93-15.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Walker NA. Mothers’ description of raising two children with an autism spectrum disorder: A case study [Doctoral dissertation]. [Minneapolis, MN]: Capella University; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Rueck K. “ LITTLE TIME FOR EXTRAS”; What’s a Stewardess. New York Times. 1972 Jun 11;travel and resorts-summer vacations-part 1XX4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAsthma Research and Practice
AbbreviationAsthma Res. Pract.
ISSN (online)2054-7064

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