How to format your references using the GPS Solutions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for GPS Solutions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Witmer LM (2001) Nostril position in dinosaurs and other vertebrates and its significance for nasal function. Science 293:850–853
A journal article with 2 authors
Keefe AD, Szostak JW (2001) Functional proteins from a random-sequence library. Nature 410:715–718
A journal article with 3 authors
Doi T, Behera SK, Yamagata T (2013) Predictability of the Ningaloo Niño/Niña. Sci Rep 3:2892
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Ambrogio S, Narayanan P, Tsai H, et al (2018) Equivalent-accuracy accelerated neural-network training using analogue memory. Nature 558:60–67

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fickelscherer RJ, Chester DL (2012) Optimal Automated Process Fault Analysis. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Liu Z, Xia CH (eds) (2008) Performance Modeling and Engineering. Springer US, Boston, MA
A chapter in an edited book
Triantafyllidis T, Röchter L, Niemunis A (2011) SHEAR BANDING IN GEOMATERIALS IN PLANE STRAIN: PHYSICAL AND ANALYTICAL MODELS. In: Borja RI (ed) Multiscale and Multiphysics Processes in Geomechanics: Resultsof the Workshop on Multiscale and Multiphysics Processes in Geomechanics, Stanford, June 23–25, 2010. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 13–16

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for GPS Solutions.

Blog post
Davis J (2015) GM Crops that Produce Fish Oil Successfully Grown in the Field. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1990) Problems Persist in Justice’s ADP Management and Organizations. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wick HF (2001) Applying Natural Horn Technique to Modern Valved Horn Performance Practice. Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Van Gelder SKC by L (2004) Arts, Briefly; Saving Shostakovich. New York Times E2

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Witmer 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Keefe and Szostak 2001; Witmer 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Keefe and Szostak 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Ambrogio et al. 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleGPS Solutions
AbbreviationGPS Solut.
ISSN (print)1080-5370
ISSN (online)1521-1886
ScopeGeneral Earth and Planetary Sciences

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