How to format your references using the GPS Solutions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for GPS Solutions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
O’Connell DRH (2008) Geophysics. Assessing ground shaking. Science 322:686–687
A journal article with 2 authors
Thompson JN, Cunningham BM (2002) Geographic structure and dynamics of coevolutionary selection. Nature 417:735–738
A journal article with 3 authors
Yi M, Hong N, Hong Y (2009) Generation of medaka fish haploid embryonic stem cells. Science 326:430–433
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Inagaki S, Guan S, Ohsuna T, Terasaki O (2002) An ordered mesoporous organosilica hybrid material with a crystal-like wall structure. Nature 416:304–307

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fernando XN (2014) Radio Over Fiber for Wireless Communications. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Blevins-Knabe B, Austin AMB (eds) (2016) Early Childhood Mathematics Skill Development in the Home Environment. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
El Rayes T, Catena R, Rafii S, et al (2015) Inflammation and Lung Cancer: The Link to Angiogenesis. In: Dubinett SM (ed) Inflammation and Lung Cancer. Springer, New York, NY, pp 137–159

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for GPS Solutions.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Sports Stadium Lights May Alter Bat Behavior And Threaten Biodiversity. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2013) Global Positioning System: A Comprehensive Assessment of Potential Options and Related Costs is Needed. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Turner LB (2012) Diet, physical activity and breast cancer risk: An integrative science cross-populational approach. Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barry E (2013) Harsh Light Falls on Bolshoi After Acid Attack. New York Times A1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (O’Connell 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Thompson and Cunningham 2002; O’Connell 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Thompson and Cunningham 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Inagaki et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleGPS Solutions
AbbreviationGPS Solut.
ISSN (print)1080-5370
ISSN (online)1521-1886
ScopeGeneral Earth and Planetary Sciences

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