How to format your references using the GPS Solutions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for GPS Solutions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lupp C (2009) Microbial oceanography. Nature 459:179
A journal article with 2 authors
Mackelprang R, Rubin EM (2008) Paleontology. New tricks with old bones. Science 321:211–212
A journal article with 3 authors
Evaristo J, Jasechko S, McDonnell JJ (2015) Global separation of plant transpiration from groundwater and streamflow. Nature 525:91–94
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Luo J, Su F, Chen D, et al (2000) Deacetylation of p53 modulates its effect on cell growth and apoptosis. Nature 408:377–381

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Schuenemeyer JH, Drew LJ (2010) Statistics for Earth and Environmental Scientists. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Veeravalli B (2006) Distributed Multimedia Retrieval Strategies for Large Scale Networked Systems. Springer US, Boston, MA
A chapter in an edited book
Rai RK, Upadhyay A, Ojha CSP, Singh VP (2012) Pattern Changes in Climatic Variables. In: Upadhyay A, Ojha CSP, Singh VP (eds) The Yamuna River Basin: Water Resources and Environment. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 61–106

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for GPS Solutions.

Blog post
Hamilton K (2016) Our Ancestors Were Carnivorous Super-Predators, So Do We Really Have A Choice About Eating Meat? In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1997) Department of Transportation: Flexible Funding Within Federal Highway Programs. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tomko PR (2012) Understanding the factors affecting the influence of children on their parents’ total purchases. Doctoral dissertation, Capella University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shpigel B (2016) Pressing for Win, Jets Push the Wrong Buttons. New York Times D8

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lupp 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Mackelprang and Rubin 2008; Lupp 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Mackelprang and Rubin 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Luo et al. 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleGPS Solutions
AbbreviationGPS Solut.
ISSN (print)1080-5370
ISSN (online)1521-1886
ScopeGeneral Earth and Planetary Sciences

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