How to format your references using the GPS Solutions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for GPS Solutions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Goldston D (2008) Big data: Data wrangling. Nature 455:15
A journal article with 2 authors
Carr MH, Garvin J (2001) Mars exploration. Nature 412:250–253
A journal article with 3 authors
Noble MEM, Endicott JA, Johnson LN (2004) Protein kinase inhibitors: insights into drug design from structure. Science 303:1800–1805
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Chodavarapu RK, Feng S, Bernatavichute YV, et al (2010) Relationship between nucleosome positioning and DNA methylation. Nature 466:388–392

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rowe P (2015) Essential Statistics for the Pharmaceutical Sciences. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Maris CW, Jacobs FCLM (eds) (2012) Law, Order and Freedom: A Historical Introduction to Legal Philosophy. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht
A chapter in an edited book
Acebes C, Harvie JP (2015) Psoriatic Arthritis. In: El Miedany Y (ed) Musculoskeletal Ultrasonography in Rheumatic Diseases. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 107–122

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for GPS Solutions.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Fossil Of World’s Earliest Modern Bird Could Help Us Understand The Extinction Of Dinosaurs. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2000) Education Discretionary Grants: Awards Process Could Benefit From Additional Improvements. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Savvas C (2010) Hydroclimate variability and landuse effects on nutrient export from watersheds in the mid-Atlantic United States. Doctoral dissertation, University of North Carolina

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G (2011) After Long Hours, the Red Sox Keep a Slim Lead. New York Times D7

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Goldston 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Carr and Garvin 2001; Goldston 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Carr and Garvin 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Chodavarapu et al. 2010)

About the journal

Full journal titleGPS Solutions
AbbreviationGPS Solut.
ISSN (print)1080-5370
ISSN (online)1521-1886
ScopeGeneral Earth and Planetary Sciences

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