How to format your references using the GPS Solutions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for GPS Solutions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lee JT (2005) Regulation of X-chromosome counting by Tsix and Xite sequences. Science 309:768–771
A journal article with 2 authors
Cai W-J, Dai M (2004) Comment on “Enhanced open ocean storage of CO2 from shelf sea pumping.” Science 306:1477; author reply 1477
A journal article with 3 authors
Alexander MH, Capecchi G, Werner H-J (2002) Theoretical study of the validity of the Born-Oppenheimer approximation in the Cl + H2 --> HCl + H reaction. Science 296:715–718
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Li R, Mitra N, Gratkowski H, et al (2003) Activation of integrin alphaIIbbeta3 by modulation of transmembrane helix associations. Science 300:795–798

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
O’Malley C (2014) Bonds Without Borders. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Hesse M (2009) Pollen Terminology: An illustrated handbook. Springer, Vienna
A chapter in an edited book
Bruno R, Carbone V (2016) Turbulence Studied via Elsässer Variables. In: Carbone V (ed) Turbulence in the Solar Wind. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 99–151

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for GPS Solutions.

Blog post
Andrew D (2016) How Brain Implants Can Let Paralysed People Move Again. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1990) FTS 2000: An Overview of the Federal Government’s New Telecommunications System. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bristow LW (2009) There is an old woman: The final stage of individuation. Doctoral dissertation, Pacifica Graduate Institute

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
JULIA C. MEAD; Linda Saslow contributed reporting for this article (2006) A Grieving Family Questions a Police Policy. New York Times 14LI7

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lee 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Cai and Dai 2004; Lee 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Cai and Dai 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Li et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleGPS Solutions
AbbreviationGPS Solut.
ISSN (print)1080-5370
ISSN (online)1521-1886
ScopeGeneral Earth and Planetary Sciences

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