How to format your references using the Acta Biotheoretica citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Acta Biotheoretica. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Suomalainen A (2015) Stem cells: Asymmetric rejuvenation. Nature 521:296–298
A journal article with 2 authors
Chou K-M, Cheng Y-C (2002) An exonucleolytic activity of human apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease on 3’ mispaired DNA. Nature 415:655–659
A journal article with 3 authors
Jeffery WR, Strickler AG, Yamamoto Y (2004) Migratory neural crest-like cells form body pigmentation in a urochordate embryo. Nature 431:696–699
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Dufour P, Liebert J, Fontaine G, Behara N (2007) White dwarf stars with carbon atmospheres. Nature 450:522–524

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Krause TR (2005) Leading with Safety. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Lai C-D (2006) Stochastic Ageing and Dependence for Reliability. Springer, New York, NY
A chapter in an edited book
Anton T, Lackes R, Siepermann M (2016) Integration of Risk Aspects into Business Process Modeling. In: Felderer M, Piazolo F, Ortner W, et al. (eds) Innovations in Enterprise Information Systems Management and Engineering: 4th International Conference, ERP Future 2015 - Research, Munich, Germany, November 16-17, 2015, Revised Papers. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 46–61

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Acta Biotheoretica.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Legal Highs – A Look At The Growing Use Of Synthetic Drugs. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1994) Continuing Professional Education Study: Budget Analysts in the Federal Government, GS-560 Series. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hofmann R (2010) The fascist reflection Japan and Italy, 1919-1950. Doctoral dissertation, Columbia University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Marx L (2014) A Romance With Lemon Juice and Two Beach Towels. New York Times ST20

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Suomalainen 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Chou and Cheng 2002; Suomalainen 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Chou and Cheng 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Dufour et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleActa Biotheoretica
AbbreviationActa Biotheor.
ISSN (print)0001-5342
ISSN (online)1572-8358
ScopeGeneral Agricultural and Biological Sciences
General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
General Environmental Science
Applied Mathematics
General Medicine

Other styles