How to format your references using the Acta Biotheoretica citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Acta Biotheoretica. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Brito L (2012) Analyzing sustainable development goals. Science 336:1396
A journal article with 2 authors
Dudin YO, Kuzmich A (2012) Strongly interacting Rydberg excitations of a cold atomic gas. Science 336:887–889
A journal article with 3 authors
Andrews-Hanna JC, Phillips RJ, Zuber MT (2007) Meridiani Planum and the global hydrology of Mars. Nature 446:163–166
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Hiiragi T, Louvet-Vallée S, Solter D, Maro B (2006) Embryology: does prepatterning occur in the mouse egg? Nature 442:E3-4; discussion E4

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Saleh SA, Rahman MA (2010) An Introduction to Wavelet Modulated Inverters. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Khokhlov AR (ed) (2006) Conformation-Dependent Design of Sequences in Copolymers II. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Lipton AM, Marshall CD (2013) Preparing for a Visit to the Doctor. In: Marshall CD (ed) The Common Sense Guide to Dementia For Clinicians and Caregivers. Springer, New York, NY, pp 29–41

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Acta Biotheoretica.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J (2015) This Is The Message We Have Sent To Aliens. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1990) Air Traffic Control: The Interim Support Plan Does Not Meet FAA’s Needs. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dill KD (2012) Nonparametric alternative to Poly-k test in animal tumorigenicity studies. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Leland J (2016) The Last Days for the Circus. New York Times MB8

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Brito 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Dudin and Kuzmich 2012; Brito 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Dudin and Kuzmich 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Hiiragi et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleActa Biotheoretica
AbbreviationActa Biotheor.
ISSN (print)0001-5342
ISSN (online)1572-8358
ScopeGeneral Agricultural and Biological Sciences
General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
General Environmental Science
Applied Mathematics
General Medicine

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