How to format your references using the Asian Journal of German and European Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Asian Journal of German and European Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Loder N (2000) UK labs impeded by old equipment. Nature 405:496
A journal article with 2 authors
Piperno DR, Stothert KE (2003) Phytolith evidence for early Holocene Cucurbita domestication in southwest Ecuador. Science 299:1054–1057
A journal article with 3 authors
Spandler C, O’Neill HSC, Kamenetsky VS (2007) Survival times of anomalous melt inclusions from element diffusion in olivine and chromite. Nature 447:303–306
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Lanzetti L, Palamidessi A, Areces L, et al (2004) Rab5 is a signalling GTPase involved in actin remodelling by receptor tyrosine kinases. Nature 429:309–314

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Maidl B, Thewes M, Maidl U (2014) Handbook of Tunnel Engineering II. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH, D-69451 Weinheim, Germany
An edited book
roJoint Chairman, Cordier J-L, Gram L, et al (eds) (2005) Micro-Organisms in Foods 6: Microbial Ecology of Food Commodities. Springer US, Boston, MA
A chapter in an edited book
Hofbauer GFL, Bachmann CC (2015) Advances in Our Understanding of Immunosuppression as a Risk Factor for Cutaneous SCC: Evidence for Revision of Immunosuppressive Therapy. In: Zwald F, Brown MD (eds) Advances in Transplant Dermatology: Clinical and Practical Implications. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 47–58

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Asian Journal of German and European Studies.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014) Cave Engraving May Be First Example Of Neanderthal Artwork. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1987) Magnet Schools: Information on the Grant Award Process. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Vidal EM (2014) Alcohol disorder with hip or knee surgery: Postoperative alcohol disorder-related costs and length of stay. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow K (2001) Refurbishing a Courthouse, If Not Its Reputation. New York Times 144

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Loder 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Loder 2000; Piperno and Stothert 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Piperno and Stothert 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Lanzetti et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleAsian Journal of German and European Studies
AbbreviationAsian J. Ger. Eur. Stud.
ISSN (online)2199-4579

Other styles