How to format your references using the Asian Journal of German and European Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Asian Journal of German and European Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Whyard S (2015) Plant science. Insecticidal RNA, the long and short of it. Science 347:950–951
A journal article with 2 authors
Trinkle DR, Woodward C (2005) The chemistry of deformation: how solutes soften pure metals. Science 310:1665–1667
A journal article with 3 authors
Ford MGJ, Jenni S, Nunnari J (2011) The crystal structure of dynamin. Nature 477:561–566
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Schaefer BF, Turner S, Parkinson I, et al (2002) Evidence for recycled Archaean oceanic mantle lithosphere in the Azores plume. Nature 420:304–307

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gelbaum BR (1995) Modern Real and Complex Analysis. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Grote U, Basu AK, Chau NH (eds) (2007) New Frontiers in Environmental and Social Labeling. Physica-Verlag HD, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Goto T, Ikehata A (2015) Water Research by Far-Ultraviolet Spectroscopy. In: Ozaki Y, Kawata S (eds) Far- and Deep-Ultraviolet Spectroscopy. Springer Japan, Tokyo, pp 55–76

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Asian Journal of German and European Studies.

Blog post
Andrews R (2016) “Transformer” Water Fleas Can Grow Armor And Weapons For Specific Predators. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1992) Mission Support Project: Analyzing User Requirements for Assignment Management Tasks. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Murray BA (2015) Sociocultural factors in women’s health in Swaziland. Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cooper M, Walsh MW (2012) Distressed Cities Weigh Bold Tactics In a New Fiscal Era. New York Times A19

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Whyard 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Trinkle and Woodward 2005; Whyard 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Trinkle and Woodward 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Schaefer et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleAsian Journal of German and European Studies
AbbreviationAsian J. Ger. Eur. Stud.
ISSN (online)2199-4579

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