How to format your references using the Asian Journal of German and European Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Asian Journal of German and European Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Willems PA (2009) The biofuels landscape through the lens of industrial chemistry. Science 325:707–708
A journal article with 2 authors
Zimmerberg J, Chernomordik LV (2005) Neuroscience. Synaptic membranes bend to the will of a neurotoxin. Science 310:1626–1627
A journal article with 3 authors
Hayden BY, Pearson JM, Platt ML (2009) Fictive reward signals in the anterior cingulate cortex. Science 324:948–950
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Emerson J, Weinstein YS, Saraceno M, et al (2003) Pseudo-random unitary operators for quantum information processing. Science 302:2098–2100

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pike A (2015) Origination. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Lont M (2014) Wake-up Receiver Based Ultra-Low-Power WBAN. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Müller M, Kersten B, Goedicke M (2011) A Question-Based Method for Deriving Software Architectures. In: Crnkovic I, Gruhn V, Book M (eds) Software Architecture: 5th European Conference, ECSA 2011, Essen, Germany, September 13-16, 2011. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 35–42

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Asian Journal of German and European Studies.

Blog post
Andrew D (2016) The Perils Of A Life In Isolation. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1998) Federal Research: Observations on the Small Business Innovation Research Program. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lemay M (2009) Understanding the mechanism of panel attrition. Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenspan D (2017) It’s All in the Hands. New York Times MM28

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Willems 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Zimmerberg and Chernomordik 2005; Willems 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Zimmerberg and Chernomordik 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Emerson et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleAsian Journal of German and European Studies
AbbreviationAsian J. Ger. Eur. Stud.
ISSN (online)2199-4579

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