How to format your references using the Asian Journal of German and European Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Asian Journal of German and European Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wakeley J (2008) Complex speciation of humans and chimpanzees. Nature 452:E3-4; discussion E4
A journal article with 2 authors
Silljé HHW, Nigg EA (2003) Signal transduction. Capturing polo kinase. Science 299:1190–1191
A journal article with 3 authors
Hummer G, Rasaiah JC, Noworyta JP (2001) Water conduction through the hydrophobic channel of a carbon nanotube. Nature 414:188–190
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Georgiou G, Tyagi HK, Mulder P, et al (2014) Photo-generated THz antennas. Sci Rep 4:3584

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bender HF (2002) Das Gefahrstoffbuch. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, FRG
An edited book
Wheeler DS, Wong HR, Shanley TP (eds) (2014) Pediatric Critical Care Medicine: Volume 1: Care of the Critically Ill or Injured Child, 2nd ed. 2014. Springer, London
A chapter in an edited book
Courtial Y (2016) The Saint-Gobain Case. In: Baroncelli C, Ballerio N (eds) WCOM (World Class Operations Management): Why You Need More Than Lean. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 29–36

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Asian Journal of German and European Studies.

Blog post
Fang J (2016) Chameleon Tongues Are 400 Times Stickier Than Ours. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2004) Federal Aviation Administration: Challenges for Transforming Into a High-Performing Organization. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tu K-H (2017) Structural and Functional Analysis of Apolipoprotein E3/E4 Hybrid. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Soloski A (2017) As Battered as Job, He Bills by the Hour. New York Times C5

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wakeley 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Silljé and Nigg 2003; Wakeley 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Silljé and Nigg 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Georgiou et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleAsian Journal of German and European Studies
AbbreviationAsian J. Ger. Eur. Stud.
ISSN (online)2199-4579

Other styles