How to format your references using the Asian Journal of German and European Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Asian Journal of German and European Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gabrieli JDE (2009) Dyslexia: a new synergy between education and cognitive neuroscience. Science 325:280–283
A journal article with 2 authors
Giessen H, Lippitz M (2010) Physics. Directing light emission from quantum dots. Science 329:910–911
A journal article with 3 authors
Mora C, Danovaro R, Loreau M (2014) Alternative hypotheses to explain why biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relationships are concave-up in some natural ecosystems but concave-down in manipulative experiments. Sci Rep 4:5427
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Tian Y, Wu G, Tian X, et al (2013) Novel erythrocyte-like graphene microspheres with high quality and mass production capability via electrospray assisted self-assembly. Sci Rep 3:3327

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Smith RA (2010) Virgil. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK
An edited book
Wan J, Humar I, Zhang D (eds) (2016) Industrial IoT Technologies and Applications: International Conference, Industrial IoT 2016, GuangZhou, China, March 25-26, 2016, Revised Selected Papers. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Pace JF, Formosa S (2013) Spatio-Temporal Concepts and the Sociophysical Realities Impinging on the Rehabilitation of Incarcerated Youth. In: Azzopardi A (ed) Youth: Responding to Lives: An International Reader. SensePublishers, Rotterdam, pp 57–73

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Asian Journal of German and European Studies.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014) Astronaut Photographs Explosions Over Israel And Gaza From Space. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2014) Air Traffic Control System: Selected Stakeholders’ Perspectives on Operations, Modernization, and Structure. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
McGrath PM (2013) Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act of 2008: A policy analysis. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Murphy MJO (2015) Friday File. New York Times C31

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gabrieli 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Gabrieli 2009; Giessen and Lippitz 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Giessen and Lippitz 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Tian et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleAsian Journal of German and European Studies
AbbreviationAsian J. Ger. Eur. Stud.
ISSN (online)2199-4579

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