How to format your references using the Asian Journal of German and European Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Asian Journal of German and European Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wodtke AM (2006) Chemistry. Chemistry in a computer: advancing the in silico dream. Science 312:64–65
A journal article with 2 authors
Cepko C, Punzo C (2015) Cell metabolism: Sugar for sight. Nature 522:428–429
A journal article with 3 authors
Blaha G, Stanley RE, Steitz TA (2009) Formation of the first peptide bond: the structure of EF-P bound to the 70S ribosome. Science 325:966–970
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Xu G-H, Wang Y-K, Sheng G-P, et al (2014) An MFC-based online monitoring and alert system for activated sludge process. Sci Rep 4:6779

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Crowl DA (2003) Understanding Explosions. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Ma S, Wen J-R, Liu Y, et al (eds) (2016) Information Retrieval Technology: 12th Asia Information Retrieval Societies Conference, AIRS 2016, Beijing, China, November 30 – December 2, 2016, Proceedings. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Penn-Bressel G (2014) Sustainable Land Use – Example: Land Take for Settlement and Transport in Germany. In: Angrick M, Burger A, Lehmann H (eds) Factor X: Policy, Strategies and Instruments for a Sustainable Resource Use. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 65–91

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Asian Journal of German and European Studies.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J (2016) SpaceX Given Second Mission By NASA To Launch Astronauts Into Space. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2009) School Meal Programs: Changes to Federal Agencies’ Procedures Could Reduce Risk of School Children Consuming Recalled Food. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bortle CD (2010) The role of mnemonic acronyms in clinical emergency medicine: A grounded theory study. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly K (2004) New Concern That Politeness Is a Lost Art in the Office. New York Times 101

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (White 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Udem 2005; Mellars 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Cepko and Punzo 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Harrington et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleAsian Journal of German and European Studies
AbbreviationAsian J. Ger. Eur. Stud.
ISSN (online)2199-4579

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