How to format your references using the Photoacoustics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Photoacoustics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
S. John, Photonics: Light control at will, Nature. 460 (2009) 337.
A journal article with 2 authors
S.K. Goyal, T. Konrad, Teleporting photonic qudits using multimode quantum scissors, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 3548.
A journal article with 3 authors
X. Li, Y. Yang, J.D. Ashwell, TNF-RII and c-IAP1 mediate ubiquitination and degradation of TRAF2, Nature. 416 (2002) 345–347.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
R.W. DePaolo, V. Abadie, F. Tang, H. Fehlner-Peach, J.A. Hall, W. Wang, E.V. Marietta, D.D. Kasarda, T.A. Waldmann, J.A. Murray, C. Semrad, S.S. Kupfer, Y. Belkaid, S. Guandalini, B. Jabri, Co-adjuvant effects of retinoic acid and IL-15 induce inflammatory immunity to dietary antigens, Nature. 471 (2011) 220–224.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
P.J. Costa, Applied Mathematics for the Analysis of Biomedical Data, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2017.
An edited book
F.P. Nijkamp, M.J. Parnham, eds., Principles of Immunopharmacology: 3rd revised and extended edition, Birkhäuser, Basel, 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
T. Grossman, The Early Development of Processing Emotions in Face and Voice, in: P. Belin, S. Campanella, T. Ethofer (Eds.), Integrating Face and Voice in Person Perception, Springer, New York, NY, 2013: pp. 95–116.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Photoacoustics.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Want More Innovation? Try Connecting The Dots Between Engineering And Humanities, IFLScience. (2015).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Telecommunications: FTS 2000 Cost Comparison, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1996.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
E. Restrepo, Eventalizing blackness in Colombia, Doctoral dissertation, University of North Carolina, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
G. Johnson, New Truths That Only One Can See, New York Times. (2014) D1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePhotoacoustics
ISSN (print)2213-5979
ScopeRadiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics

Other styles