How to format your references using the Photoacoustics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Photoacoustics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
R.H. Tyler, Strong ocean tidal flow and heating on moons of the outer planets, Nature. 456 (2008) 770–772.
A journal article with 2 authors
J.L. Heilbron, W.F. Bynum, 1904 and all that, Nature. 426 (2003) 761–764.
A journal article with 3 authors
I. Ganguly-Fitzgerald, J. Donlea, P.J. Shaw, Waking experience affects sleep need in Drosophila, Science. 313 (2006) 1775–1781.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
L.J. Cliffe, N.E. Humphreys, T.E. Lane, C.S. Potten, C. Booth, R.K. Grencis, Accelerated intestinal epithelial cell turnover: a new mechanism of parasite expulsion, Science. 308 (2005) 1463–1465.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
C.L. Rao, V. Narayanamurthy, K.R.Y. Simha, Applied Impact Mechanics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2016.
An edited book
M. Rodrigues, Advanced Applications of Natural Language Processing for Performing Information Extraction, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
K. Balzer, M. Bonitz, Lattice Systems, in: M. Bonitz (Ed.), Nonequilibrium Green’s Functions Approach to Inhomogeneous Systems, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013: pp. 75–82.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Photoacoustics.

Blog post
K. Evans, The 25 Highest-Paying Jobs In America In 2016, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, The Case for National Testing, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1991.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
R.A. Gonzales, Health care team effectiveness: The relationship between team task interdependence and group emotional competence, Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M.J.O. Murphy, ‘Sesame Street’ When It Started, New York Times. (2015) C25.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePhotoacoustics
ISSN (print)2213-5979
ScopeRadiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics

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