How to format your references using the Photoacoustics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Photoacoustics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
S.W. Parman, Helium isotopic evidence for episodic mantle melting and crustal growth, Nature. 446 (2007) 900–903.
A journal article with 2 authors
C.A. Mbadugha, A.O. Onakoya, The awareness, perceptions and experiences of primary open angle glaucoma patients in Lagos Nigeria, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 7585.
A journal article with 3 authors
J. Rajagopalan, J.H. Han, M.T.A. Saif, Plastic deformation recovery in freestanding nanocrystalline aluminum and gold thin films, Science. 315 (2007) 1831–1834.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
E.M. Kendirlik, S. Sirt, S.B. Kalkan, W. Dietsche, W. Wegscheider, S. Ludwig, A. Siddiki, Anomalous resistance overshoot in the integer quantum Hall effect, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 3133.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
N. Katsilambros, E. Diakoumopoulou, I. Ioannidis, S. Liatis, K. Makrilakis, N. Tentolouris, P. Tsapogas, Diabetes in Clinical Practice, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2006.
An edited book
H. Vinken, Y. Nishimura, B.L.J. White, M. Deguchi, eds., Civic Engagement in Contemporary Japan: Established and Emerging Repertoires, Springer, New York, NY, 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
P. Johnson, L. Nordström, R. Lagerström, Formalizing Analysis of Enterprise Architecture, in: G. Doumeingts, J. Müller, G. Morel, B. Vallespir (Eds.), Enterprise Interoperability: New Challenges and Approaches, Springer, London, 2007: pp. 35–44.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Photoacoustics.

Blog post
J. O`Callaghan, NASA Will Be Making An Announcement Today - Here’s How To Watch Live, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Federal Student Aid: Recent Changes to Eligibility Requirements and Additional Efforts to Promote Awarness Could Increase Academic Competitiveness and SMART Grant Participation, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2009.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
T.P. Filomena, Technology portfolio and capacity expansion under uncertainty, Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Wagner, Wealth of Experience on the Mets’ Roster Comes With a Painful Cost, New York Times. (2017) SP5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePhotoacoustics
ISSN (print)2213-5979
ScopeRadiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics

Other styles