How to format your references using the Photoacoustics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Photoacoustics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
G. Parkin, Chemistry. Zinc-zinc bonds: a new frontier, Science. 305 (2004) 1117–1118.
A journal article with 2 authors
D. Stroebel, P. Paoletti, Neuroscience: A structure to remember, Nature. 511 (2014) 162–163.
A journal article with 3 authors
F.S. Al-Zaid, A.A. Alhader, L.Y. Al-Ayadhi, Altered ghrelin levels in boys with autism: a novel finding associated with hormonal dysregulation, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 6478.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
W.C. Gasper, G.K. Marinov, F. Pauli-Behn, M.T. Scott, K. Newberry, G. DeSalvo, S. Ou, R.M. Myers, J. Vielmetter, B.J. Wold, Fully automated high-throughput chromatin immunoprecipitation for ChIP-seq: identifying ChIP-quality p300 monoclonal antibodies, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 5152.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Y. Marcus, Supercritical Water, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2012.
An edited book
M.T. Thai, P.M. Pardalos, eds., Handbook of Optimization in Complex Networks: Communication and Social Networks, Springer, New York, NY, 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
T. Kasper, D. Oswald, C. Paar, Side-Channel Analysis of Cryptographic RFIDs with Analog Demodulation, in: A. Juels, C. Paar (Eds.), RFID. Security and Privacy: 7th International Workshop, RFIDSec 2011, Amherst, USA, June 26-28, 2011, Revised Selected Papers, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012: pp. 61–77.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Photoacoustics.

Blog post
E. Andrew, New Technology Can Be The Difference Between Life And Death In A Disaster, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Rehabilitation Services: Administration of Grants to Human Services Training and Research Council, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1986.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
K.D. Sindel, Can experiential education strategies improve elementary science teachers’ perceptions of and practices in science teaching?, Doctoral dissertation, Lindenwood University, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
R. Lyman, In Siege on Democracy, Polish Leaders Now Target Judicial System, New York Times. (2017) A10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePhotoacoustics
ISSN (print)2213-5979
ScopeRadiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics

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