How to format your references using the Asian Journal of Criminology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Asian Journal of Criminology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Peeples, M. S. (2015). Astronomy: Cosmic fog and smog. Nature, 517(7535), 444–445.
A journal article with 2 authors
Damasio, A., & Meyer, K. (2008). Behind the looking-glass. Nature, 454(7201), 167–168.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cho, G., Wu, Y., & Ackerman, J. L. (2003). Detection of hydroxyl ions in bone mineral by solid-state NMR spectroscopy. Science (New York, N.Y.), 300(5622), 1123–1127.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Irifune, T., Higo, Y., Inoue, T., Kono, Y., Ohfuji, H., & Funakoshi, K. (2008). Sound velocities of majorite garnet and the composition of the mantle transition region. Nature, 451(7180), 814–817.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hoffman, R. V. (2004). Organic Chemistry. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Dupas, C., Houdy, P., & Lahmani, M. (Eds.). (2007). Nanoscience: Nanotechnologies and Nanophysics. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Stranieri, A., & Zeleznikow, J. (2005). Data Mining with Rule Induction. In J. Zeleznikow (Ed.), Knowledge Discovery from Legal Databases (pp. 83–98). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Asian Journal of Criminology.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. (2016, December 27). Scientists May Have Discovered A New State Of Liquid Water. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1984). [Federal Policies and Practices for Acquiring Information Technology Can Be Improved] (No. 124890). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Garraway, O. L. (2008). A study of the relationship between corporate leaders’ beliefs and the firm’s strategic decisions (Doctoral dissertation). University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kovaleski, S. F., & Alter, A. (2015, August 24). Another Drama in Hometown of Harper Lee. New York Times, p. C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Peeples 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Damasio and Meyer 2008; Peeples 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Damasio and Meyer 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Irifune et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleAsian Journal of Criminology
AbbreviationAsian J. Criminol.
ISSN (print)1871-0131
ISSN (online)1871-014X

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