How to format your references using the Asia Pacific Journal on Computational Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Asia Pacific Journal on Computational Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ferrari R (2014) Oceanography: What goes down must come up. Nature 513:179–180
A journal article with 2 authors
Ruths D, Pfeffer J (2014) Social sciences. Social media for large studies of behavior. Science 346:1063–1064
A journal article with 3 authors
Bascom-Slack CA, Arnold AE, Strobel SA (2012) IBI series winner. Student-directed discovery of the plant microbiome and its products. Science 338:485–486
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Svetovoy VB, Sanders RGP, Ma K, Elwenspoek MC (2014) New type of microengine using internal combustion of hydrogen and oxygen. Sci Rep 4:4296

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Storhas W (2013) Bioverfahrensentwicklung. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany
An edited book
Zia Ul Haq M (2016) Anthocyanins and Human Health: Biomolecular and therapeutic aspects. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Lee C, Suzuki J, Vasilakos AV (2010) iNet-EGT: An Evolutionarily Stable Adaptation Framework for Network Applications. In: Altman E, Carrera I, El-Azouzi R, et al (eds) Bioinspired Models of Network, Information, and Computing Systems: 4th International Conference, BIONETICS 2009, Avignon, France, December 9-11, 2009, Revised Selected Papers. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 36–49

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Asia Pacific Journal on Computational Engineering.

Blog post
Luntz S (2016) Scientists Design Potential Universal Flu Vaccine. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1999) Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Readiness of Medicare and the Health Care Sector. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mac Garrigle EF (2006) A validation of the enterprise management engineering approach to knowledge management systems engineering. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sturm J (2017) On the Move. New York Times BR22

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAsia Pacific Journal on Computational Engineering
ISSN (online)2196-1166

Other styles