How to format your references using the Asia Pacific Journal on Computational Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Asia Pacific Journal on Computational Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cuffey KM (2008) Climate change. A Matter of firn. Science 320:1596–1597
A journal article with 2 authors
Li W, Walz JY (2014) Porous nanocomposites with integrated internal domains: application to separation membranes. Sci Rep 4:4418
A journal article with 3 authors
Alvarado D, Klein DE, Lemmon MA (2009) ErbB2 resembles an autoinhibited invertebrate epidermal growth factor receptor. Nature 461:287–291
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Kao RR, Gravenor MB, Baylis M, et al (2002) The potential size and duration of an epidemic of bovine spongiform encephalopathy in British sheep. Science 295:332–335

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cuddy-Keane M, Hammond A, Peat A (2014) Modernism: Keywords. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Pahl J, Reiners T, Voß S (2011) Network Optimization: 5th International Conference, INOC 2011, Hamburg, Germany, June 13-16, 2011. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Bartnik R, Buryn Z (2011) Testing Calculations of the Mathematical Model of a Power Unit. In: Buryn Z (ed) Conversion of Coal-Fired Power Plants to Cogeneration and Combined-Cycle: Thermal and Economic Effectiveness. Springer, London, pp 69–78

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Asia Pacific Journal on Computational Engineering.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Time Might Be Running Backwards Inside Black Holes. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2016) Independent Auditor’s Report on Applying Agreed-Upon Procedures: Fiscal Year 2016 Excise Tax Distributions to the Airport and Airway Trust Fund and the Highway Trust Fund. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ball-Miles NM (2014) The relationship between witnessing verbal marital conflict as a child and the behavioral anger responses in adulthood. Doctoral dissertation, Capella University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh MW (2015) Major Changes in Rhode Island Pension Overhaul. New York Times B6

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAsia Pacific Journal on Computational Engineering
ISSN (online)2196-1166

Other styles