How to format your references using the Journal of Echocardiography citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Echocardiography. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Gwynne P. Technology: Mobility machines. Nature. 2013;503:S16-7.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Wang X, Zhou Z. Palaeontology: pterosaur embryo from the Early Cretaceous. Nature. 2004;429:621.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Khor B, Gardet A, Xavier RJ. Genetics and pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease. Nature. 2011;474:307–17.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Covert MW, Knight EM, Reed JL, Herrgard MJ, Palsson BO. Integrating high-throughput and computational data elucidates bacterial networks. Nature. 2004;429:92–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Sexton D. Trump University Marketing 101. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2009.
An edited book
1. Bourassa MG, Tardif J-C, editors. Antioxidants and Cardiovascular Disease. Second Edition. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Nagnibeda E, Kustova E. Multi-Temperature Models in Transport and Relaxation Theory. In: Kustova E, editor. Non-Equilibrium Reacting Gas Flows: Kinetic Theory of Transport and Relaxation Processes. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009. p. 55–95.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Echocardiography.

Blog post
1. O`Callaghan J. You Can Now Vote On What NASA Takes Images Of Next On Jupiter [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/space/you-can-now-vote-on-what-nasa-takes-images-of-next-on-jupiter/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Programs at the U.S. Army School of the Americas in Panama. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1975 Nov. Report No.: ID-76-27.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Brugna RA. Augmenting the clinical clerkship curriculum of a physician assistant training program with distance education technology: Educational outcomes and student perceptions [Doctoral dissertation]. [Minneapolis, MN]: Capella University; 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Verkuil PR. The Case for Bureaucracy. New York Times. 2016 Oct 3;A23.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Echocardiography
AbbreviationJ. Echocardiogr.
ISSN (print)1349-0222
ISSN (online)1880-344X
ScopeRadiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

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