How to format your references using the Journal of Echocardiography citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Echocardiography. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Piwowar H. Altmetrics: Value all research products. Nature. 2013;493:159.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. West JD, Bergstrom CT. Psychology. Can ignorance promote democracy? Science. 2011;334:1503–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Bleichert F, Botchan MR, Berger JM. Crystal structure of the eukaryotic origin recognition complex. Nature. 2015;519:321–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Mao G, Perea RF, Howells WS, Price DL, Saboungi ML. Relaxation in polymer electrolytes on the nanosecond timescale. Nature. 2000;405:163–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Goodman AH. Rehabilitating and Resettling Offenders in the Community. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2012.
An edited book
1. Bernhard P. The Interval Market Model in Mathematical Finance: Game-Theoretic Methods. Engwerda JC, Roorda B, Schumacher JM, Kolokoltsov V, Saint-Pierre P, Aubin J-P, editors. New York, NY: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Loewenberger P. Human Resource Development, Creativity and Innovation. In: Shipton H, Budhwar P, Sparrow P, Brown A, editors. Human Resource Management, Innovation and Performance. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK; 2016. p. 48–65.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Echocardiography.

Blog post
1. Davis J. New Drug Could Protect Against Some Aspects Of Radiation Sickness [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/new-drug-could-potentially-protect-against-some-aspects-radiation-sickness/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Transportation Security: Actions Needed to Address Limitations in TSA’s Transportation Worker Security Threat Assessments and Growing Workload. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2011 Dec. Report No.: GAO-12-60.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Builes AJ. Inferring Function: A Study of Three Prehistoric Structures in El Pital, Puerto López, Manabí, Ecuador [Doctoral dissertation]. [Boca Raton, FL]: Florida Atlantic University; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Wagner J. Cubs Slugger Admits He May Cry Over His Unlikely Return to Action. New York Times. 2016 Oct 26;B10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Echocardiography
AbbreviationJ. Echocardiogr.
ISSN (print)1349-0222
ISSN (online)1880-344X
ScopeRadiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

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