How to format your references using the Journal of Echocardiography citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Echocardiography. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Parton RG. Cell biology. Life without caveolae. Science. 2001;293:2404–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Brosnan SF, de Waal FBM. Evolution of responses to (un)fairness. Science. 2014;346:1251776.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Baulch HM, Stanley EH, Bernhardt ES. Can algal uptake stop NO3(-) pollution? Nature. 2011;477:E3; discussion E3-4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Wiwatpanit T, Lorenzen SM, Cantú JA, Foo CZ, Hogan AK, Márquez F, et al. Trans-differentiation of outer hair cells into inner hair cells in the absence of INSM1. Nature. 2018;

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Chakrabarty P. A Guide to Academia. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2012.
An edited book
1. Yeakley JA, Maas-Hebner KG, Hughes RM, editors. Wild Salmonids in the Urbanizing Pacific Northwest. New York, NY: Springer; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Zhang L, Yang T, Shi P, Zhu Y. Time-Delay Systems Case. In: Yang T, Shi P, Zhu Y, editors. Analysis and Design of Markov Jump Systems with Complex Transition Probabilities. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 57–70.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Echocardiography.

Blog post
1. Evans K. Australian Zoo Gives Badly Burnt Cockatoo New Wings In Icarus-Inspired Surgery. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. School Vouchers: Characteristics of Privately Funded Programs. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2002 Sep. Report No.: GAO-02-752.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Arendse EM. A textual Caribbean: Voices of the multitude in Junot Díaz’s The Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
1. Dobbins J. Making a Living on Airbnb. New York Times. 2017 Apr 7;RE1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Echocardiography
AbbreviationJ. Echocardiogr.
ISSN (print)1349-0222
ISSN (online)1880-344X
ScopeRadiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

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