How to format your references using the Journal of Echocardiography citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Echocardiography. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Konacki M. An extrasolar giant planet in a close triple-star system. Nature. 2005;436:230–3.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Jacoby CA, Frazer TK. Eutrophication: time to adjust expectations. Science. 2009;324:723–4; author reply 724-5.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Auerbach BD, Osterweil EK, Bear MF. Mutations causing syndromic autism define an axis of synaptic pathophysiology. Nature. 2011;480:63–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Ogunseitan OA, Schoenung JM, Saphores J-DM, Shapiro AA. Science and regulation. The electronics revolution: from e-wonderland to e-wasteland. Science. 2009;326:670–1.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Mead DE. Becoming a Marriage and Family Therapist. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2013.
An edited book
1. Baluska F. Cell-Cell Channels. Volkmann D, Barlow PW, editors. New York, NY: Springer; 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Mao C, Qin SF, Wright D. Sketching-Out Virtual Humans: A Smart Interface for Human Modelling and Animation. In: Butz A, Fisher B, Krüger A, Olivier P, Owada S, editors. Smart Graphics: 8th International Symposium, SG 2007, Kyoto, Japan, June 25-27, 2007 Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2007. p. 36–48.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Echocardiography.

Blog post
1. Hale T. Don’t Believe Your Eyes, These Strawberries Are Not Red. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Department of Education Uncertain About Effectiveness of Its Special Services Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1982 Nov. Report No.: HRD-83-13.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Fisher MD. The impact adult supervision, role models, and civic engagement has on the health status of adolescents [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Solomon BC, Villamor F. In a City of Ruins, the Philippines’ Fierce Battle With ISIS Rages On. New York Times. 2017 Sep 1;A4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Echocardiography
AbbreviationJ. Echocardiogr.
ISSN (print)1349-0222
ISSN (online)1880-344X
ScopeRadiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

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