How to format your references using the Journal of Echocardiography citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Echocardiography (J Echocardiogr). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Stephan P. Research efficiency: Perverse incentives. Nature. 2012;484:29–31.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Falkowski PG, Isozaki Y. Geology. The story of O2. Science. 2008;322:540–2.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Henry GT, Fortner CK, Bastian KC. The effects of experience and attrition for novice high-school science and mathematics teachers. Science. 2012;335:1118–21.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Xu W, Shang Y, Zhu P, Zhai Z, He J, Huang K, et al. Randomly broken fragment PCR with 5’ end-directed adaptor for genome walking. Sci Rep. 2013;3:3465.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Filla JJ, Brown HE. Prospect Research for Fundraisers. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
1. Enna SJ, Möhler H, editors. The GABA Receptors. Third Edition. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press; 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Lewis ME, Werdelin L. Patterns of change in the Plio-Pleistocene carnivorans of eastern Africa. In: Bobe R, Alemseged Z, Behrensmeyer AK, editors. Hominin Environments in the East African Pliocene: An Assessment of the Faunal Evidence. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2007. p. 77–105.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Echocardiography.

Blog post
1. Carpineti A. Gullies On Mars Are Not Formed By Liquid Water – But Other Features Are [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Software Development: Effective Practices and Federal Challenges in Applying Agile Methods. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2012 Jul. Report No.: GAO-12-681.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Bigelow RW. Perception of Online Legal Education among Recently Retired Law School Faculty [Doctoral dissertation]. [Minneapolis, MN]: Capella University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Suleiman SR. Selected for Death. New York Times. 2016 Oct 18;BR20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Echocardiography
AbbreviationJ. Echocardiogr.
ISSN (print)1349-0222
ISSN (online)1880-344X
ScopeRadiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

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