How to format your references using the Journal of Echocardiography citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Echocardiography. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Ulbricht M. Materials science: gating mechanism under pressure. Nature. 2015;519:41–2.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Sloan PA, Palmer RE. Two-electron dissociation of single molecules by atomic manipulation at room temperature. Nature. 2005;434:367–71.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Li X, Schuler MA, Berenbaum MR. Jasmonate and salicylate induce expression of herbivore cytochrome P450 genes. Nature. 2002;419:712–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Du K, Herzig S, Kulkarni RN, Montminy M. TRB3: a tribbles homolog that inhibits Akt/PKB activation by insulin in liver. Science. 2003;300:1574–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Firth-Cozens J, Harrison J. How to Survive in Medicine. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2010.
An edited book
1. Efimov IR, Kroll MW, Tchou PJ, editors. Cardiac Bioelectric Therapy: Mechanisms and Practical Implications. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Boisse P, Akkerman R, Cao J, Chen J, Lomov S, Long A. Composites Forming. In: Cueto E, editor. Advances in Material Forming: Esaform 10 years on. Paris: Springer; 2007. p. 61–79.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Echocardiography.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. How Wolves Can Save an Ecosystem [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/how-wolves-can-save-ecosystem/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. DOD Still Needs To Clarify Policies for Performing Research and Development for Other Agencies. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1980 Apr. Report No.: PSAD-80-44.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Lieberman V. One yard shy of empowerment: Cinematic portrayals of female athletes [Doctoral dissertation]. [Boca Raton, FL]: Florida Atlantic University; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Shpigel B. How Johnson Might Balance Ambassadorship and the Jets. New York Times. 2017 Jan 20;D2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Echocardiography
AbbreviationJ. Echocardiogr.
ISSN (print)1349-0222
ISSN (online)1880-344X
ScopeRadiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

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