How to format your references using the Asia-Pacific Journal of Health, Sport and Physical Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Asia-Pacific Journal of Health, Sport and Physical Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mollenauer, L. F. (2003). Physics. Nonlinear optics in fibers. Science (New York, N.Y.), 302(5647), 996–997.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ding, T., & Schloss, P. D. (2014). Dynamics and associations of microbial community types across the human body. Nature, 509(7500), 357–360.
A journal article with 3 authors
Han, J. S., Szak, S. T., & Boeke, J. D. (2004). Transcriptional disruption by the L1 retrotransposon and implications for mammalian transcriptomes. Nature, 429(6989), 268–274.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Waldo, G. L., Ricks, T. K., Hicks, S. N., Cheever, M. L., Kawano, T., Tsuboi, K., Wang, X., Montell, C., Kozasa, T., Sondek, J., & Harden, T. K. (2010). Kinetic scaffolding mediated by a phospholipase C-beta and Gq signaling complex. Science (New York, N.Y.), 330(6006), 974–980.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wernecke, R. (2003). Industrielle Feuchtemessung. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Liu, X. (Ed.). (2015). Public Budgeting Reform in China: Theory and Practice (1st ed. 2015). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Zhang, K., Wen, Z., Du, B., & Song, G. (2008). A Multiple-Indicators Approach to Monitoring Urban Sustainable Development. In M. M. Carreiro, Y.-C. Song, & J. Wu (Eds.), Ecology, Planning, and Management of Urban Forests: International Perspectives (pp. 35–52). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Asia-Pacific Journal of Health, Sport and Physical Education.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2016, June 28). This Guy Made A DIY Liquid Nitrogen-Firing Ice Blaster. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2008). Information Technology: Agencies Need to Establish Comprehensive Policies to Address Changes to Projects’ Cost, Schedule, and Performance Goals (GAO-08-925). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lee, D. (2010). Subjective strain, anger, and delinquency: Evidence from South Korea [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Maryland, College Park.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt), S. K. (2004, July 23). World Briefing | Europe: Russia: Bombs Injure 8 In Area Near Chechnya. New York Times, A9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Mollenauer, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Ding & Schloss, 2014; Mollenauer, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ding & Schloss, 2014)
  • Three authors: (Han et al., 2004)
  • 6 or more authors: (Waldo et al., 2010)

About the journal

Full journal titleAsia-Pacific Journal of Health, Sport and Physical Education
ISSN (print)1837-7122
ISSN (online)1837-7130
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine
Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

Other styles