How to format your references using the Mathematical Biosciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Mathematical Biosciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
J. Mervis, 2001 BUDGET: Spending Bills Show No Sign of Surplus--Yet, Science. 289 (2000) 31.
A journal article with 2 authors
S.Y. Hong, E. Kalnay, Role of sea surface temperature and soil-moisture feedback in the 1998 Oklahoma-Texas drought, Nature. 408 (2000) 842–844.
A journal article with 3 authors
M. Kennedy, D. Mrofka, C. von der Borch, Snowball Earth termination by destabilization of equatorial permafrost methane clathrate, Nature. 453 (2008) 642–645.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
M. Campbell, J. Cleland, A. Ezeh, N. Prata, Public health. Return of the population growth factor, Science. 315 (2007) 1501–1502.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, List of MAK and BAT Values 2014, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany, 2014.
An edited book
C. Bischof, H.-G. Hegering, W.E. Nagel, G. Wittum, eds., Competence in High Performance Computing 2010: Proceedings of an International Conference on Competence in High Performance Computing, June 2010, Schloss Schwetzingen, Germany, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
N. Vahrenkamp, T. Asfour, R. Dillmann, Efficient Motion and Grasp Planning for Humanoid Robots, in: K. Harada, E. Yoshida, K. Yokoi (Eds.), Motion Planning for Humanoid Robots, Springer, London, 2010: pp. 129–160.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Mathematical Biosciences.

Blog post
C. Carpineti, Video: Bear Breaks Into House, Plays Piano Whilst Family Are Out, IFLScience. (2017). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Export Controls: International Space Station Technology Transfers, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1999.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
T.I. Williams-Newball, Domain, Community and Practice: An Empirical Investigation of the Relationship Between Communities of Practice and Professional Identity Among Veterinarians, Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
B. Sisario, Sprint Throws a Cash Lifeline to Struggling Tidal, New York Times. (2017) B3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMathematical Biosciences
AbbreviationMath. Biosci.
ISSN (print)0025-5564
ScopeGeneral Agricultural and Biological Sciences
General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
General Immunology and Microbiology
Applied Mathematics
Modelling and Simulation
Statistics and Probability
General Medicine

Other styles