How to format your references using the ASAIO Journal (American Society for Artificial Internal Organs) citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for ASAIO Journal (American Society for Artificial Internal Organs). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sánchez-Lavega A: How long is the day on Saturn? Science 307: 1223–1224, 2005
A journal article with 2 authors
Bianchi ME, Manfredi AA: Immunology. Dangers in and out Science 323: 1683–1684, 2009
A journal article with 3 authors
Arantes-Oliveira N, Berman JR, Kenyon C: Healthy animals with extreme longevity Science 302: 611, 2003
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Kennett DJ, Kennett JP, West A, et al.: Nanodiamonds in the Younger Dryas boundary sediment layer Science 323: 94, 2009

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bertolo D: Interactions on Digital Tablets in the Context of 3D Geometry Learning Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2016.
An edited book
Lahiri S, Schick A, SenGupta A, Sriram TN (eds): Contemporary Developments in Statistical Theory: A Festschrift for Hira Lal Koul Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Farkas J, Jármai K: Tubular Trusses, in: Jármai K (ed) Optimum Design of Steel Structures. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2013, pp. 61–107.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for ASAIO Journal (American Society for Artificial Internal Organs).

Blog post
Davis J: Research Ship To Be Purposely Frozen In Arctic Ice To Drift Across The North Pole IFLScience, 2017 Available at: Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Seclusions and Restraints: Selected Cases of Death and Abuse at Public and Private Schools and Treatment Centers Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2009.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ratliff DJ: Teen parenting curriculum: A grant proposal project, 2009

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Photographs by GEORGE ETHEREDGE for THE NEW YORK TIMES: Voyeur: Construction Portholes New York Times. April 28, 2017:RE8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleASAIO Journal (American Society for Artificial Internal Organs)
AbbreviationASAIO J.
ISSN (print)1058-2916
ISSN (online)1538-943X
Biomedical Engineering
General Medicine

Other styles