How to format your references using the ASAIO Journal (American Society for Artificial Internal Organs) citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for ASAIO Journal (American Society for Artificial Internal Organs). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Guthrie RD: New carbon dates link climatic change with human colonization and Pleistocene extinctions Nature 441: 207–209, 2006
A journal article with 2 authors
Treguer P, Pondaven P: Global change. Silica control of carbon dioxide Nature 406: 358–359, 2000
A journal article with 3 authors
Whitney D, Westwood DA, Goodale MA: The influence of visual motion on fast reaching movements to a stationary object Nature 423: 869–873, 2003
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Vilkov O, Fedorov A, Usachov D, et al.: Controlled assembly of graphene-capped nickel, cobalt and iron silicides Sci Rep 3: 2168, 2013

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Aichinger M, Binder A: A Workout in Computational Finance Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2013.
An edited book
Dai H, Liu JNK, Smirnov E (eds): Reliable Knowledge Discovery Boston, MA: Springer US, 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Wolf E, Beblo M, Ohlert C: Gender and nationality pay gaps in light of organisational theories, in: Beham B, Straub C, Schwalbach J (eds) Managing Diversity in Organizations. Wiesbaden: Gabler Verlag, 2012, pp. 69–94.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for ASAIO Journal (American Society for Artificial Internal Organs).

Blog post
Luntz S: Despite The Hype, Fewer Millennials Are Having Sex Than Predecessors IFLScience, 2016 Available at: Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Human Resources Research and Development Results Can Be Better Managed Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1977.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Molina-Gutierrez E: Keys to my home: A grant proposal project, 2009

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Whiteside K: Foes Get Together, and No One’s Fighting Like … New York Times. February 12, 2017:SP11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleASAIO Journal (American Society for Artificial Internal Organs)
AbbreviationASAIO J.
ISSN (print)1058-2916
ISSN (online)1538-943X
Biomedical Engineering
General Medicine

Other styles