How to format your references using the ASAIO Journal (American Society for Artificial Internal Organs) citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for ASAIO Journal (American Society for Artificial Internal Organs). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Chakravarti A: Obituary: Victor Almon McKusick (1921-2008) Nature 455: 46, 2008
A journal article with 2 authors
Cheney RE, Rodriguez OC: Cell biology. A switch to release the motor Science 293: 1263–1264, 2001
A journal article with 3 authors
Driscoll R, Hudson A, Jackson SP: Yeast Rtt109 promotes genome stability by acetylating histone H3 on lysine 56 Science 315: 649–652, 2007
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Conway KA, Rochet JC, Bieganski RM, Lansbury PT Jr: Kinetic stabilization of the alpha-synuclein protofibril by a dopamine-alpha-synuclein adduct Science 294: 1346–1349, 2001

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rees PA: An Introduction to Zoo Biology and Management Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2011.
An edited book
Barbosa LS, Lumpe M (eds): Formal Aspects of Component Software: 7th International Workshop, FACS 2010, Guimarães, Portugal, October 14-16, 2010, Revised Selected Papers Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Gorgulho AMSBS, Neves RFMF, Horta NCG: System Validation, in: Neves RFMF, Horta NCG (eds) Intelligent Financial Portfolio Composition based on Evolutionary Computation Strategies. SpringerBriefs in Applied Sciences and Technology. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2013, pp. 57–68.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for ASAIO Journal (American Society for Artificial Internal Organs).

Blog post
Luntz S: Excitation and Inhibition Co-Exist in Disappointment IFLScience, 2014 Available at: Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Stafford Student Loan Program: Correspondence Schools’ Loan Volume Declines Sharply Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1992.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Schiffbauer LW: The pursuit of self-esteem: A help or a hindrance in thriving in the workplace?, 2013

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schwartz J: Climate Deal Called Too Weak to Meet Goals New York Times. November 16, 2016:A12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleASAIO Journal (American Society for Artificial Internal Organs)
AbbreviationASAIO J.
ISSN (print)1058-2916
ISSN (online)1538-943X
Biomedical Engineering
General Medicine

Other styles