How to format your references using the ASAIO Journal (American Society for Artificial Internal Organs) citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for ASAIO Journal (American Society for Artificial Internal Organs). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Blatt R: Delicate information Nature 412: 773, 2001
A journal article with 2 authors
Karkazis K, Jordan-Young R: Science and society. Debating a testosterone “sex gap” Science 348: 858–860, 2015
A journal article with 3 authors
Joachim C, Gimzewski JK, Aviram A: Electronics using hybrid-molecular and mono-molecular devices Nature 408: 541–548, 2000
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Yang Y-F, Fisk Z, Lee H-O, Thompson JD, Pines D: Scaling the Kondo lattice Nature 454: 611–613, 2008

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zarbock G, Lynch S, Ammann A, Ringer S: Mindfulness for Therapists Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 2014.
An edited book
Lionetti TM, Snyder EP, Christner RW (eds): A Practical Guide to Building Professional Competencies in School Psychology Boston, MA: Springer US, 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Taha S, Shen X: Conclusions and Future Directions, in: Shen X (ed) Secure IP Mobility Management for VANET. SpringerBriefs in Computer Science. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2013, pp. 103–106.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for ASAIO Journal (American Society for Artificial Internal Organs).

Blog post
Andrew D: Watch What Ants Do When A Phone Starts To Ring IFLScience, 2015 Available at: Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Mass Transit: Reauthorization Offers Opportunity To Address the Appropriate Federal Role Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1991.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Swofford DM: Impact of a pharmaceutical company’s leadership development program on participant leadership behavior, 2009

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
McKINLEY JC Jr, Southall A, Baker AL: Bronx Killing Leaves Only the Police in the Dark New York Times. December 15, 2016:A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleASAIO Journal (American Society for Artificial Internal Organs)
AbbreviationASAIO J.
ISSN (print)1058-2916
ISSN (online)1538-943X
Biomedical Engineering
General Medicine

Other styles