How to format your references using the Artificial Intelligence in Agriculture citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Artificial Intelligence in Agriculture. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Covington, W.W., 2000. Helping western forests heal. Nature 408, 135–136.
A journal article with 2 authors
Nagib, D.A., MacMillan, D.W.C., 2011. Trifluoromethylation of arenes and heteroarenes by means of photoredox catalysis. Nature 480, 224–228.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jackson, D.E., Holcombe, M., Ratnieks, F.L.W., 2004. Trail geometry gives polarity to ant foraging networks. Nature 432, 907–909.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Osterloo, M.M., Hamilton, V.E., Bandfield, J.L., Glotch, T.D., Baldridge, A.M., Christensen, P.R., Tornabene, L.L., Anderson, F.S., 2008. Chloride-bearing materials in the southern highlands of Mars. Science 319, 1651–1654.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Curry, S.H., Whelpton, R., 2010. Drug Disposition and Pharmacokinetics. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Campbell, W.B., Lopez Ortiz, S. (Eds.), 2011. Integrating Agriculture, Conservation and Ecotourism: Examples from the Field, Issues in Agroecology – Present Status and Future Prospectus. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Varon, J., Fromm, R.E., 2014. Gastrointestinal Facts and Formulas, in: Fromm, R.E., Jr. (Ed.), Acute and Critical Care Formulas and Laboratory Values. Springer, New York, NY, pp. 41–43.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Artificial Intelligence in Agriculture.

Blog post
Fang, J., 2016. Male Fiddler Crabs Use Vibrations To Lure Females Into Burrows [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2007. Older Driver Safety: Knowledge Sharing Should Help States Prepare for Increase in Older Driver Population (No. GAO-07-413). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Henry, A.G., 2010. Plant foods and the dietary ecology of Neandertals and modern humans (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley, B., 2016. Deftly Conjuring the High Magic of Art. New York Times C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Covington, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Covington, 2000; Nagib and MacMillan, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Nagib and MacMillan, 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Osterloo et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleArtificial Intelligence in Agriculture
ISSN (print)2589-7217

Other styles