How to format your references using the Journal of Business Ethics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Business Ethics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Scott, A. R. (2014). Stem cells: creating a cure-all. Nature, 515(7526), S14-5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Zindl, C. L., & Chaplin, D. D. (2010). Immunology. Tumor immune evasion. Science (New York, N.Y.), 328(5979), 697–698.
A journal article with 3 authors
Joachim, C., Gimzewski, J. K., & Aviram, A. (2000). Electronics using hybrid-molecular and mono-molecular devices. Nature, 408(6812), 541–548.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Huang, Y., Duan, X., Cui, Y., Lauhon, L. J., Kim, K. H., & Lieber, C. M. (2001). Logic gates and computation from assembled nanowire building blocks. Science (New York, N.Y.), 294(5545), 1313–1317.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Owen, J. S., & Fiedler-Kelly, J. (2014). Introduction to Population Pharmacokinetic / Pharmacodynamic Analysis with Nonlinear Mixed Effects Models. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Mercury, L., Tas, N., & Zilberbrand, M. (Eds.). (2014). Transport and Reactivity of Solutions in Confined Hydrosystems. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Courtois, L., Maire, E., Perez, M., Brechet, Y., & Rodney, D. (2011). Mechanical properties of Monofilament entangled materials. In T. Proulx (Ed.), Optical Measurements, Modeling, and Metrology, Volume 5: Proceedings of the 2011 Annual Conference on Experimental and Applied Mechanics (pp. 33–38). New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Business Ethics.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2014, September 3). Our Home Supercluster Gets a Map and a Name. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2001). DOD Information Technology: Software and Systems Process Improvement Programs Vary in Use of Best Practices (No. GAO-01-116). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
BenVau, L. (2014). Effects of larval Nosema ceranae infection on adult honey bee (Apis mellifera) morphology and physiology (Doctoral dissertation). University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schwartz, J. (2017, June 10). Exxon Faults N.Y. Official Over Inquiry. New York Times, p. B3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Scott 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Scott 2014; Zindl and Chaplin 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Zindl and Chaplin 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Huang et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Business Ethics
AbbreviationJ. Bus. Ethics
ISSN (print)0167-4544
ISSN (online)1573-0697
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
General Business, Management and Accounting
Business and International Management
Economics and Econometrics

Other styles