How to format your references using the Journal of Business Ethics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Business Ethics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bunk, S. (2001). Sandia scientists develop instruments at the crossroads. Nature, 410(6824), 128–129.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ahima, R. S., & Lazar, M. A. (2013). Physiology. The health risk of obesity--better metrics imperative. Science (New York, N.Y.), 341(6148), 856–858.
A journal article with 3 authors
Biswas, A. K., Atulasimha, J., & Bandyopadhyay, S. (2014). An error-resilient non-volatile magneto-elastic universal logic gate with ultralow energy-delay product. Scientific reports, 4, 7553.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
de Montjoye, Y.-A., Hidalgo, C. A., Verleysen, M., & Blondel, V. D. (2013). Unique in the Crowd: The privacy bounds of human mobility. Scientific reports, 3, 1376.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Decreusefond, L., & Moyal, P. (2012). Stochastic Modeling and Analysis of Telecom Networks. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Neustein, A., & Markowitz, J. A. (Eds.). (2013). Mobile Speech and Advanced Natural Language Solutions. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Jones, M. B., Zimmermann, J., & Clifton-Brown, J. (2016). Long-Term Yields and Soil Carbon Sequestration from Miscanthus: A Review. In S. Barth, D. Murphy-Bokern, O. Kalinina, G. Taylor, & M. Jones (Eds.), Perennial Biomass Crops for a Resource-Constrained World (pp. 43–49). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Business Ethics.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. (2017, June 6). Mars May Have Had A Ridiculous Amount Of Water. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1996). FCC: Flexible Service Offerings in the Commercial Mobile Radio Services (No. OGC-96-40). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chen, X. S. (2017). Social Support Communication Behavior, Anxiety Symptomatology, and Marital Satisfaction Among Distressed Couples (Doctoral dissertation). Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cooper, M. (2017, September 22). ‘The Third Tenor’ Exits. New York Times, p. C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bunk 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Ahima and Lazar 2013; Bunk 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ahima and Lazar 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (de Montjoye et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Business Ethics
AbbreviationJ. Bus. Ethics
ISSN (print)0167-4544
ISSN (online)1573-0697
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
General Business, Management and Accounting
Business and International Management
Economics and Econometrics

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