How to format your references using the Artificial Intelligence citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Artificial Intelligence. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
J.W. Morris Jr, Materials science. Stronger, tougher steels, Science. 320 (2008) 1022–1023.
A journal article with 2 authors
H. Noda, N. Lapusta, Stable creeping fault segments can become destructive as a result of dynamic weakening, Nature. 493 (2013) 518–521.
A journal article with 3 authors
C. Minto, R.A. Myers, W. Blanchard, Survival variability and population density in fish populations, Nature. 452 (2008) 344–347.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
P.A. Venail, R.C. MacLean, T. Bouvier, M.A. Brockhurst, M.E. Hochberg, N. Mouquet, Diversity and productivity peak at intermediate dispersal rate in evolving metacommunities, Nature. 452 (2008) 210–214.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
H. You, X. Jianjuan, G. Xin, Radar Data Processing with Applications, John Wiley &;#38; Sons Singapore Pte. Ltd, Singapore, 2016.
An edited book
R. Cerqueira, R.H. Campbell, eds., Middleware 2007: ACM/IFIP/USENIX 8th International Middleware Conference, Newport Beach, CA, USA, November 26-30, 2007. Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
P. Seeling, F.H.P. Fitzek, M. Reisslein, Video Trace Generation, in: F.H.P. Fitzek, M. Reisslein (Eds.), Video Traces for Network Performance Evaluation: A Comprehensive Overview and Guide on Video Traces and Their Utilization in Networking Research, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2007: pp. 59–81.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Artificial Intelligence.

Blog post
K. Hamilton, Dog Sniffs Out Thyroid Cancer In Urine Samples, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Telecommunications: GSA Needs to Share and Prioritize Lessons Learned to Avoid Future Transition Delays, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2013.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
N.-Q. Ton, A hierarchical wireless network architecture for building automation and control systems: Implementation and simulation study, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Barron, Where Presidential Aspirations Are Finally Laid to Rest, New York Times. (2016) C17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleArtificial Intelligence
AbbreviationArtif. Intell.
ISSN (print)0004-3702
ScopeLanguage and Linguistics
Artificial Intelligence
Linguistics and Language

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