How to format your references using the Artificial Intelligence citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Artificial Intelligence. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
E. Dolgin, Devices: Artificial inspiration, Nature. 489 (2012) S12-4.
A journal article with 2 authors
U.B. Göhlich, L.M. Chiappe, A new carnivorous dinosaur from the Late Jurassic Solnhofen archipelago, Nature. 440 (2006) 329–332.
A journal article with 3 authors
T. Nakagaki, H. Yamada, A. Tóth, Maze-solving by an amoeboid organism, Nature. 407 (2000) 470.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
C. Thibert, M.-A. Teillet, F. Lapointe, L. Mazelin, N.M. Le Douarin, P. Mehlen, Inhibition of neuroepithelial patched-induced apoptosis by sonic hedgehog, Science. 301 (2003) 843–846.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
K.P. Ambachtsheer, The Future of Pension Management, John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ, 2016.
An edited book
R. Stackowiak, Big Data and the Internet of Things: Enterprise Information Architecture for a New Age, Apress, Berkeley, CA, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
A. Benzaouia, A. Hmamed, F. Tadeo, Delay-Dependent Stabilization of Two-Dimensional Delayed Systems with Saturating Control, in: A. Hmamed, F. Tadeo (Eds.), Two-Dimensional Systems: From Introduction to State of the Art, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016: pp. 75–109.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Artificial Intelligence.

Blog post
D. Andrew, Is Masturbation Good For You?, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, FAA’s Voice Communications and Administrative Computer Systems, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1989.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
B.L. Hurwitz, Viral community dynamics and functional specialization in the Pacific Ocean, Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Koblin, NBC Will Bring Back ‘Will & Grace,’ New York Times. (2017) C2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleArtificial Intelligence
AbbreviationArtif. Intell.
ISSN (print)0004-3702
ScopeLanguage and Linguistics
Artificial Intelligence
Linguistics and Language

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