How to format your references using the Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research (AAAR). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Shih, W. M. 2015: Materials Science. Exploiting weak interactions in DNA self-assembly. Science (New York, N.Y.), 347: 1417–1418.
A journal article with 2 authors
Dudai, Y., and Carruthers, M. 2005: The Janus face of Mnemosyne. Nature, 434: 567.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wearn, O. R., Reuman, D. C., and Ewers, R. M. 2012: Extinction debt and windows of conservation opportunity in the Brazilian Amazon. Science (New York, N.Y.), 337: 228–232.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Noble, P. W., Young, M. R., Bernatsky, S., Weisbart, R. H., and Hansen, J. E. 2014: A nucleolytic lupus autoantibody is toxic to BRCA2-deficient cancer cells. Scientific Reports, 4: 5958.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hamad, W. Y. 2017: Cellulose Nanocrystals. Chichester, UK:, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Loiseau, J. J., Michiels, W., Niculescu, S.-I., and Sipahi, R. (Eds.). 2009: Topics in Time Delay Systems: Analysis, Algorithms and Control (Vol. 388). Berlin, Heidelberg:, Springer, XVIII, 418 p. 93 illus pp.
A chapter in an edited book
Su, B., Xu, Q., and Xiao, P. 2007: Finding the Anti-block Vital Edge of a Shortest Path Between Two Nodes. In A. Dress, Y. Xu, and B. Zhu (eds.), Combinatorial Optimization and Applications: First International Conference, COCOA 2007, Xi’an, China, August 14-16, 2007. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg:, Springer, pp. 11–19.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research.

Blog post
Luntz, S. 2015, September 15: Vitamin D May Protect Against Cognitive Declineaccessed 30 October 2018, <>.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1993: Radio Marti (No. NSIAD-93-126R). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nam, S. 2010: A method for teaching jazz improvisation to beginning pianists in a group setting (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J. 2016, October 26: Wait Over, Indians Strike Quickly. New York Times, p. B8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Shih, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Dudai and Carruthers, 2005; Shih, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Dudai and Carruthers, 2005)
  • Three authors: (Wearn, Reuman, and Ewers, 2012)
  • 6 or more authors: (Noble, Young, Bernatsky, Weisbart, and Hansen, 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleArctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research
AbbreviationArct. Antarct. Alp. Res.
ISSN (print)1523-0430
ISSN (online)1938-4246
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Earth-Surface Processes
Global and Planetary Change

Other styles