How to format your references using the Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research (AAAR). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Boggs, G. R. 2010: Science education. Growing roles for science education in community colleges. Science (New York, N.Y.), 329: 1151–1152.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sivanand, S., and Wellen, K. E. 2015: Molecular biology: Salvaging the genome. Nature, 524: 40–41.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chandra, P., Coleman, P., and Flint, R. 2013: Hastatic order in the heavy-fermion compound URu2Si2. Nature, 493: 621–626.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Raj, L., Ide, T., Gurkar, A. U., Foley, M., Schenone, M., Li, X., … Lee, S. W. 2011: Selective killing of cancer cells by a small molecule targeting the stress response to ROS. Nature, 475: 231–234.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rees, P. A. 2011: An Introduction to Zoo Biology and Management. Hoboken, NJ:, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Thomas, S., Visakh, P. M., and Mathew, A. P. (Eds.). 2013: Advances in Natural Polymers: Composites and Nanocomposites (Vol. 18). Berlin, Heidelberg:, Springer, X, 426 p pp.
A chapter in an edited book
Shang, H., and Cao, G. 2007: Template-Based Synthesis of Nanorod or Nanowire Arrays. In B. Bhushan (ed.), Springer Handbook of Nanotechnology. Berlin, Heidelberg:, Springer, pp. 161–178.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research.

Blog post
Andrew, E. 2013, December 2: Stem Cells Converted Into Lung Tissueaccessed 30 October 2018, <>.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1973: Problems in Regulating Selected Vaccines (No. B-164031(2)). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lanigan, L. G. 2012: Effects of Two Cancer Genes, HTLV-1 Tax and E-Cadherin, on Cancer Development and Progression (Doctoral dissertation). Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hubbard, B. 2016, September 27: Decline in Oil Prices Lands on Government Workers as Saudi Arabia Cuts Paychecks. New York Times, p. A6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Boggs, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Boggs, 2010; Sivanand and Wellen, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sivanand and Wellen, 2015)
  • Three authors: (Chandra, Coleman, and Flint, 2013)
  • 6 or more authors: (Raj et al., 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titleArctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research
AbbreviationArct. Antarct. Alp. Res.
ISSN (print)1523-0430
ISSN (online)1938-4246
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Earth-Surface Processes
Global and Planetary Change

Other styles