How to format your references using the Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research (AAAR). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lightman, A. 2005: A tale of two loves. Nature, 434: 299–300.
A journal article with 2 authors
Muerdter, F., and Stark, A. 2014: Genomics: Hiding in plain sight. Nature, 512: 374–375.
A journal article with 3 authors
Terrones, H., López-Urías, F., and Terrones, M. 2013: Novel hetero-layered materials with tunable direct band gaps by sandwiching different metal disulfides and diselenides. Scientific Reports, 3: 1549.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Rodewald, H. R., Paul, S., Haller, C., Bluethmann, H., and Blum, C. 2001: Thymus medulla consisting of epithelial islets each derived from a single progenitor. Nature, 414: 763–768.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Speight, J. G., and Singh, K. 2014: Environmental Management of Energy from Biofuels and Biofeedstocks. Hoboken, NJ:, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Garcia-Alfaro, J., Navarro-Arribas, G., Aldini, A., Martinelli, F., and Suri, N. (Eds.). 2016: Data Privacy Management, and Security Assurance: 10th International Workshop, DPM 2015, and 4th International Workshop, QASA 2015, Vienna, Austria, September 21–22, 2015. Revised Selected Papers (1st ed. 2016, Vol. 9481). Cham:, Springer International Publishing, XV, 291 p. 68 illus. in color pp.
A chapter in an edited book
Wane, N. N. 2011: Spirituality. In N. N. Wane, E. L. Manyimo, and E. J. Ritskes (eds.), Spirituality, Education & Society. Rotterdam:, SensePublishers, pp. 67–82.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research.

Blog post
Fang, J. 2015, September 1: 99% Of All Seabird Species Will Likely Be Eating Plastic By 2050accessed 30 October 2018, <>.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1990: Comments on Department of Education Use of Subsequent-Year Appropriations (No. B-236667). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Subbarao, S. 2015: An 8-PSK super regenerative receiver: Design and simulation (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow, L. 2009, January 11: Moving From Team Sport to Lifelong Fitness. New York Times, p. LI5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lightman, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Lightman, 2005; Muerdter and Stark, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Muerdter and Stark, 2014)
  • Three authors: (Terrones, López-Urías, and Terrones, 2013)
  • 6 or more authors: (Rodewald, Paul, Haller, Bluethmann, and Blum, 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleArctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research
AbbreviationArct. Antarct. Alp. Res.
ISSN (print)1523-0430
ISSN (online)1938-4246
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Earth-Surface Processes
Global and Planetary Change

Other styles