How to format your references using the Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research (AAAR). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Eberl, G. 2014: Immunology: A is for immunity. Nature, 508: 47–48.
A journal article with 2 authors
Tyers, M., and Mann, M. 2003: From genomics to proteomics. Nature, 422: 193–197.
A journal article with 3 authors
Armstrong, A. A., Mohideen, F., and Lima, C. D. 2012: Recognition of SUMO-modified PCNA requires tandem receptor motifs in Srs2. Nature, 483: 59–63.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Zaban, B., Liu, W., Jiang, X., and Nick, P. 2014: Plant cells use auxin efflux to explore geometry. Scientific Reports, 4: 5852.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Turner, J. R., and Durham, T. A. 2008: Integrated Cardiac Safety: Assessment Methodologies for Noncardiac Drugs in Discovery, Development, and Postmarketing Surveillance. Hoboken, NJ:, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Sabu, A., and Augustine, A. (Eds.). 2013: Prospects in Bioscience: Addressing the Issues. New Delhi:, Springer India, XV, 430 p. 183 illus., 64 illus. in color pp.
A chapter in an edited book
Paleolog, E., and Akhavani, M. A. 2008: The lymphocyte in inflammatory angiogenesis. In M. P. Seed and D. A. Walsh (eds.), Angiogenesis in Inflammation: Mechanisms and Clinical Correlates. Basel:, Birkhäuser, pp. 45–57.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. 2017, March 29: New Research Hopes To Find Dark Matter Using Gravitational Wavesaccessed 30 October 2018, <>.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1997: Transportation and Telecommunications Issue Area--Active Assignments (No. AA-97-18(1)). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Haile, M. D. 2012: A mental health community outreach and education program for Eritrean immigrants: A grant proposal (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Murphy, M. J. O. 2016, April 15: When the Loch Ness Monster Was in The Times. New York Times, p. C28.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Eberl, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Eberl, 2014; Tyers and Mann, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Tyers and Mann, 2003)
  • Three authors: (Armstrong, Mohideen, and Lima, 2012)
  • 6 or more authors: (Zaban, Liu, Jiang, and Nick, 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleArctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research
AbbreviationArct. Antarct. Alp. Res.
ISSN (print)1523-0430
ISSN (online)1938-4246
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Earth-Surface Processes
Global and Planetary Change

Other styles