How to format your references using the Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research (AAAR). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lieberman, P. M. 2014: Virology. Epstein-Barr virus turns 50. Science (New York, N.Y.), 343: 1323–1325.
A journal article with 2 authors
Zinkernagel, R. M., and Hengartner, H. 2001: Regulation of the immune response by antigen. Science (New York, N.Y.), 293: 251–253.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rudolph, M. L., Lekić, V., and Lithgow-Bertelloni, C. 2015: Viscosity jump in Earth’s mid-mantle. Science (New York, N.Y.), 350: 1349–1352.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Yasue, A., Mitsui, S. N., Watanabe, T., Sakuma, T., Oyadomari, S., Yamamoto, T., … Tanaka, E. 2014: Highly efficient targeted mutagenesis in one-cell mouse embryos mediated by the TALEN and CRISPR/Cas systems. Scientific Reports, 4: 5705.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Schmidt, W. 2000: Optische Spektroskopie. D-69451 Weinheim, Germany:, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH.
An edited book
Bucchianico, A. D., Mattheij, R. M. M., and Peletier, M. A. (Eds.). 2006: Progress in Industrial Mathematics at ECMI 2004 (Vol. 8). Berlin, Heidelberg:, Springer, XXX, 678 p. 343 illus., 44 illus. in color pp.
A chapter in an edited book
Kamel, N., Ouchen, I., and Baali, K. 2014: A Sampling-PSO-K-means Algorithm for Document Clustering. In J.-S. Pan, P. Krömer, and V. Snášel (eds.), Genetic and Evolutionary Computing: Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Genetic and Evolutionary Computing, ICGEC 2013, August 25 - 27, 2013 - Prague, Czech Republic. Cham:, Springer International Publishing, pp. 45–54.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research.

Blog post
Andrews, R. 2016, December 20: At Least Three Asteroids Set To Zip By Earth This Wednesdayaccessed 30 October 2018, <>.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1999: Tax Systems Modernization: Results of Review of IRS’ Initial Expenditure Plan (No. AIMD/GGD-99-206). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Surges, G. 2015: Generative Audio Systems: Musical Applications of Time-Varying Feedback Networks and Computational Aesthetics (Doctoral dissertation). University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Parker, M.-L. 2016, November 2: … I Had Actual Egg on My Face. New York Times, p. AR12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lieberman, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Lieberman, 2014; Zinkernagel and Hengartner, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Zinkernagel and Hengartner, 2001)
  • Three authors: (Rudolph, Lekić, and Lithgow-Bertelloni, 2015)
  • 6 or more authors: (Yasue et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleArctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research
AbbreviationArct. Antarct. Alp. Res.
ISSN (print)1523-0430
ISSN (online)1938-4246
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Earth-Surface Processes
Global and Planetary Change

Other styles